San Francisco Peace Conference
Contributor: C. Peter Chen
ww2dbaseOn 8 Sep 1951, representatives of 48 nations signed the Treaty of San Francisco at the War Memorial Opera House in San Francisco, California, United States. When it would come into effect on 28 Apr 1952, peace became official between Japan and some of the Allied nations, and thus it represented the technical end of WW2 even though guns had been silent since 1945. It also allocated compensation from Japan to various Allied nations.
ww2dbaseMost Allied nations (and nations formed from former Allied possessions such as the Philippines, Burma, and Lebanon, to name only a few) attended the conference and signed the treaty, there were several exceptions.
- Burma was invited, but did not send any representatives.
- China was not invited due to disagreements on whether the established but defeated Republic of China or the newly formed People's Republic of China represented the Chinese people. The Republic of China would sign a separate peace treaty with Japan in 1952.
- Czechoslovakia sent representatives, but it refused to enter into the treaty, following the footsteps of Soviet Union.
- India was invited, but did not send any representatives for that India thought the treaty was interfering with the future of Japanese sovereignty. India would sign a separate peace treaty with Japan in 1952.
- Italy was not invited.
- Korea was not invited due to disagreements on whether South Korea or North Korea represented the Korean people.
- Poland sent representatives, but it refused to enter into the treaty, following the footsteps of Soviet Union.
- Soviet Union sent representatives, but it refused to enter into the treaty due to disagreements with United States and United Kingdom. Soviet Union would not end the state of war with Japan until 1956.
- Yugoslavia was invited, but did not send any representatives.
ww2dbaseOther Peace Treaties with Japan
ww2dbaseOn 28 Apr 1952, the Republic of China and Japan signed the Sino-Japanese Peace Treaty, commonly known as the Treaty of Taipei, in which Japan renounced its rights to Taiwan, Pescadores (now Penghu) Islands, Spratly Islands, Paracel Islands. It came into effect on 5 Aug 1952, but Japan would denounce this treaty in 1972.
ww2dbaseThe Treaty of Peace Between Japan and India was signed on 9 Jun 1952. Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru had attended the San Francisco conference in 1951, but refused to sign due to his belief that the future of Japan's sovereignty was being violated by the harsh terms of the agreement.
ww2dbaseSoviet Union, whose disagreements with United States and United Kingdom led to Soviet (as well as Czechoslovakian and Polish) representatives' refusal to sign the peace treaty in 1951, entered into the separate Soviet-Japanese Joint Declaration in 1956, finally ending the state of war and restoring diplomatic relations. This declaration was understood by both sides to not be a peace treaty.
San Francisco Peace Conference Interactive Map
San Francisco Peace Conference Timeline
|15 Aug 1951||Communist China published a statement denouncing the Treaty of San Francisco to be signed into international agreement.|
|8 Sep 1951||The Treaty of San Francisco was signed by 48 nations at the War Memorial Opera House in San Francisco, California, United States. When it would take effect in the following year, WW2 would finally officially end.|
|18 Sep 1951||Communist China published a statement denouncing the Treaty of San Francisco signed into international agreement ten days prior.|
|28 Apr 1952||The Treaty of San Francisco, signed in Sep 1951, went into effect. On the same day, the Republic of China and Japan signed a the Sino-Japanese Peace Treaty in Taipei, Taiwan. The state of war between most of the Allied nations and Japan finally officially ceased.|
|9 Jun 1952||India and Japan entered into a peace treaty.|
|5 Aug 1952||The Sino-Japanese Peace Treaty, signed in Apr 1952, came into effect.|
|16 Jul 1956||The Philippines ratified the Treaty of San Francisco.|
|19 Oct 1956||Soviet Union and Japan entered into the Soviet-Japanese Joint Declaration which finally ended the state of war between the two countries. Formal peace agreement could not be reached, however, due to disputes over the southern Kurile Islands.|
|20 Jan 1958||Indonesia and Japan entered into a bilateral reparations agreement and peace treaty.|
|29 Sep 1972||Japanese Prime Minister Kakuei Tanaka stated that the Japanese government "is keenly conscious of the responsibility for the serious damage that Japan caused in the past to the Chinese people through war, and deeply reproaches itself." On the same day, he abrogated the Sino-Japanese Peace Treaty of 1952 (also known as the Treaty of Taipei) as he had decided to recognize the Communist People's Republic of China seated in Beijing rather than the Republic of China seated in Taipei, Taiwan.|
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Thomas Dodd, late 1945