1910 | 1911 | 1912 | 1913 | 1914 | 1915 | 1916 | 1917 | 1918 | 1919
1920 | 1921 | 1922 | 1923 | 1924 | 1925 | 1926 | 1927 | 1928 | 1929
1930 | 1931 | 1932 | 1933 | 1934 | 1935 | 1936 | 1937 | 1938 | 1939
1940 | 1941 | 1942 | 1943 | 1944 | 1945 | 1946 | 1947 | 1948 | 1949

3 Jan 1931
  • Marshal Joseph Joffre, the former French Commander-in-Chief (1914-1916), passed away. [AC]
5 Jan 1931

United States
  • USS R-1 departed San Diego, California, United States. [Main Article | CPC]
8 Jan 1931

Malta
15 Jan 1931
  • Louisville was commissioned into service. [Main Article | CPC]
16 Jan 1931

China
  • Seiji Tsukamoto succeeded Masahiro Ota as the Governor-General of Kwantung Leased Territory in northeastern China. [CPC]
Taiwan
  • Masahiro Ota was named the governor-general of Taiwan. [CPC]
21 Jan 1931
  • Sir Isaac Isaacs became the first Australian-born Governor-General of the Commonwealth of Australia. [AC]
26 Jan 1931

Russia
  • Production of T-26 light tanks began in Bolshevik Factory in Leningrad, Russia. [Main Article | CPC]
27 Jan 1931

France
  • Pierre Laval became the 101st Prime Minister of France. [Main Article | CPC]
28 Jan 1931

Panama Canal Zone
30 Jan 1931
  • Augusta was commissioned into service. [Main Article | CPC]
31 Jan 1931

Danzig
  • Ernst Ziehm became the President of the Senate of Danzig. [CPC]
1 Feb 1931
  • Hugo Sperrle was promoted to the rank of Oberstleutnant. [Main Article | CPC]
United States
  • Henry Arnold was promoted to the rank of lieutenant colonel. [Main Article | CPC]
5 Feb 1931

United States
  • Malcolm Campbell broke the World land speed record by achieving 246.09 miles per hour at Daytona Beach, Florida, United States. For this achievement he would be knighted by King George V on his return to Southampton, England, United Kingdom. [AC]
9 Feb 1931
  • USS R-1 arrived at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States. [Main Article | CPC]
United States
  • USS R-5 arrived at New London, Connecticut, United States. [Main Article | CPC]
13 Feb 1931

India
  • New Delhi became the capital of India. [AC]
Russia
  • The T-27 tankette was accepted into Soviet service. [Main Article | CPC]
  • The first T-26 light tanks entered Soviet military service. [Main Article | CPC]
14 Feb 1931

Spain
  • Spanish Prime Minister Dámasco Berenguer resigned and was succeeded by Admiral Aznar-Cabañas. [AC]
20 Feb 1931

Japan
  • The keel of light cruiser Ninghai was laid down by Harima Dock Company, Limited of Japan. [Main Article | CPC]
23 Feb 1931

Hawaii
1 Mar 1931
  • USS Arizona completed her modernization and was placed in full commission status. [Main Article | CPC]
3 Mar 1931

United States
  • The US Congress formally adopted "The Star Spangled Banner" as the US national anthem. [AC]
4 Mar 1931

France
  • Colbert was commissioned into service. [Main Article | CPC]
5 Mar 1931
  • Gandhi reached agreement with Lord Irwin, the Viceroy of India, which would end the civil disobedience campaign in return for a round table conference to decide constitutional reform in India. [AC]
9 Mar 1931
  • Cruiser USS Chicago (CA-29) was commissioned into service with Captain Manley Hale Simons in command. [Main Article | AC]
19 Mar 1931
  • USS Arizona embarked US President Herbert Hoover and departed Hampton Roads, Virginia, United States for a trip to Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. [Main Article | CPC]
France
  • The keel of Algérie was laid down at Brest, France. [Main Article | CPC]
28 Mar 1931
  • The 2MR8 aircraft took its first flight. [Main Article | CPC]
29 Mar 1931
  • USS Arizona arrived at Hampton Roads, Virginia, United States and disembarked US President Herbert Hoover. She departed for Rockland, Maine, United States later on the same day to perform post-modernization trials. [Main Article | CPC]
31 Mar 1931

United States
  • A serious air crash occurred at Bazaar, Kansas, United States. Among those killed as a result of structural failure in the Atlantic-built Fokker F.10A was Knute Rockne, coach of the Notre Dame football team. The resuting publicity led to TWA withdrawing their entire Fokker fleet and the F.10A was to become the first aircraft type to be officially grounded by the US Department of Commerce. [AC]
1 Apr 1931
  • Werner Mölders joined the German Army as an officer cadet. [Main Article | CPC]
Germany
  • A SA rebellion led by Walther Stenners briefly overturned the National Socialist leadership in Berlin, Germany, only to be swept aside by an emotional appeal by Hitler for the need for party loyalty. [AC]
  • Wolfgang Falck began a year-long training program to become a commercial pilot at Schleissheim, München-Oberbayern, Germany. [Main Article | CPC]
United States
  • USS R-5 was assigned to US Submarine Division 4. [Main Article | CPC]
11 Apr 1931

Photo(s) dated 11 Apr 1931
Chicago at the Mare Island Navy Yard, California, Apr 1931
14 Apr 1931

Spain
  • The Spanish Republic was proclaimed and was recognized by western nations; King Alfonso XIII of Spain fled into exile. [CPC, AC]
1 May 1931
  • USS R-1 was decommissioned from service. [Main Article | CPC]
  • President Hoover officially opened the Empire State Building in New York City in the United States. [AC]
11 May 1931

Austria
  • The Credit-Anstalt (Austria's biggest bank; owned by the Rothschild family) went bankrupt, which ultimately would contribute to Adolf Hitler's rise to power in Germany. [AC]
14 May 1931

Sweden
  • At the town of Adalen, Sweden military troops brought in to protect strike-breakers at a timber and pulp factory opened fire on the strikers and killed five. [AC]
15 May 1931

Taiwan
  • Vice Admiral Shunzo Mito was named the Chief of Staff of the Mako naval port at Pescadores islands, Taiwan. [Main Article | CPC]
19 May 1931

Germany
  • The German pocket battleship Deutschland was launched at Kiel, Germany. [Main Article | AC]
26 May 1931

United States
  • US Navy issued an order for Consolidated Aircraft to build the prototype aircraft Model 22 Ranger XP2Y-1. [Main Article | CPC]
31 May 1931
  • Cruiser Köln conducted training operation in the Baltic Sea. [Main Article | CPC]
1 Jun 1931
  • During this month cruiser Köln traveled to Norway and conducted operations in the North Sea, Jutland, and the Baltic Sea. [Main Article | CPC]
5 Jun 1931
  • The Do X aircraft arrived in the Cape Verde islands. [Main Article | CPC]
6 Jun 1931

France
25 Jun 1931

Germany
  • The keel of Admiral Scheer was laid down by Reichsmarinewerft in Wilhelmshaven, Germany. [Main Article | CPC]
28 Jun 1931

China
  • The keel of light cruiser Pinghai was laid down at the Jiangnan Arsenal in Shanghai, China with Chinese Secretary of the Navy Chen Shaokuan in attendence. [Main Article | Facility | CPC]
30 Jun 1931
  • Arthur Greiser joined the SS organization of the Nazi Party. [Main Article | CPC]
7 Jul 1931

United States
  • US Navy issued an order from Consolidated Aircraft for 23 P2Y-3 aircraft. [Main Article | CPC]
20 Jul 1931

Photo(s) dated 20 Jul 1931
Kongo under reconstruction, Yokosuka, Japan, 20 Jul 1931; she was nearing completion
23 Jul 1931

China
  • Song Ziwen survived an assassination attempt at the Shanghai North Railway Station in Shanghai, China. [Main Article | CPC]
29 Jul 1931

United States
1 Aug 1931

China
  • Shigeru Honjo was named the commanding officer of the Japanese Kwantung Army in northeastern China. [CPC]
Taiwan
  • Lieutenant General Saburo Hayashi was named the commanding officer of the Taiwan Army. [CPC]
United States
  • USS Arizona departed Norfolk, Virginia, United States for San Pedro, California, United States. [Main Article | CPC]
5 Aug 1931
  • The Do X aircraft departed Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. [Main Article | CPC]
8 Aug 1931
  • Workers go on strike at the Hoover Dam in the United States. [CPC]
15 Aug 1931

France
18 Aug 1931

France
  • The keel of Émile Bertin was laid down by Chantiers de Penhoët at Saint-Nazaire, France. [Main Article | CPC]
Photo(s) dated 18 Aug 1931
Do X aircraft arriving on the Suriname River near Paramaribo, Dutch Guiana (now Suriname), 18 Aug 1931
20 Aug 1931

Japan
  • Masafumi Arima was made the gunnery officer of Asama. [Main Article | CPC]
27 Aug 1931
  • The Do X aircaft arrived in New York, United States. [Main Article | CPC]
13 Sep 1931

United Kingdom
  • By gaining the UK's third consecutive win, Flight Lieutenant J. N. Boothman flying the Supermarine S6B secured the Schneider Trophy for the nation. He had flown the 350-kilometer course uncontested at an average speed of 340.08 miles per hour. [AC]
15 Sep 1931
  • The Invergordon Mutiny, a mutiny by men of the British Atlantic Fleet in protest against threatened pay cuts, began. [AC]
Germany
  • Josias was promoted to the rank of SS-Oberführer. [Main Article | CPC]
16 Sep 1931
  • The Invergordon Mutiny crisis passed when the British Admiralty promised to revise the proposed cuts. The mutiny caused such alarm on the exchange markets that the government was provoked into taking sterling off the gold standard. [AC]
18 Sep 1931

China
  • Japanese troops detonate a bomb on the rail line near Mukden, China. [Main Article | CPC]
Photo(s) dated 18 Sep 1931
Japanese troops marching into Mukden, 18 Sep 1931, photo 2 of 3Japanese troops marching into Mukden, 18 Sep 1931, photo 1 of 3Railway sabotage site, near Mukden, northeastern China, 18 Sep 1931, photo 1 of 2Japanese rail officials and reporters at the site of the alleged railroad sabotage, near Mukden, 18 Sep 1931
See all photos dated 18 Sep 1931
19 Sep 1931

China
  • Japanese troops occupied Mukden, China. [Main Article | CPC]
Photo(s) dated 19 Sep 1931
Japanese troops taking a break in Manchuria, circa Sep-Oct 1931Japanese troops in Manchuria, circa Sep-Oct 1931, photo 1 of 4Japanese troops in Manchuria, circa Sep-Oct 1931, photo 3 of 4Japanese armored cars in Manchuria, circa Sep-Oct 1931
See all photos dated 19 Sep 1931
20 Sep 1931

United Kingdom
  • A run on the pound caused by panic in the London Stock Market led to the British national government abandoning the Gold Standard. [AC]
Photo(s) dated 20 Sep 1931
Japanese troops disarming Chinese soldiers in Manchuria, circa Sep-Oct 1931Kenji Doihara (in Army uniform) in Mukden, China, 20 Sep 1931Japanese Kwantung Army troops marching in a town in Manchuria, northeastern China, Sep 1931
21 Sep 1931
  • China appealed to the League of Nations over the Japanese attacks in northeast China. The league dispatched a delegation headed by British Lord V. A. G. R. Bulwer-Lytton to China to investigate. [Main Article | CPC]
China
  • The Japanese installed Colonel Kenji Doihara as the mayor of Mukden, Liaoning Province, China. [Main Article | CPC]
  • Sun Du was assigned to the military staff of warlord Long Yun of Yunnan Province, China. [Main Article | CPC]
23 Sep 1931
  • Chinese Lieutenant General Xi Qia began talks with the Japanese occupation representatives in Mukden, China. [Main Article | CPC]
24 Sep 1931

China
  • Yuan Chin-hai was appointed the Chairman of the Committee for the Maintenance of Peace and Order for the newly renamed Fengtien Province in northeastern China (now Liaoning Province, China) as he negotiated with the Japanese. Meanwhile, Lieutenant General Xi Qia of neighboring Jilin Province continued his separate discussion with the Japanese. [Main Article | CPC]
26 Sep 1931

China
  • The Manchukuo National Airways was established in Fengtian Province, Manchukuo per orders of the Japanese Kwantung Army. [CPC]
27 Sep 1931

China
  • In response to the Japanese aggression during the Mukden Incident, Governor Zhang Jinghui of Harbin, Heilongjiang Province, China called for a conference with his lieutenants to plan a secession of the region from the Republic of China. [Main Article | CPC]
29 Sep 1931
  • The Soviet Union declared neutrality in the conflict between China and Japan in northeastern China (Manchuria). [Main Article | CPC]
30 Sep 1931
  • Lieutenant General Xi Qia, collaborating with the Japanese, announced that Jilin Province, China was now independent from the Republic of China and was under protection of the Japanese Army. [Main Article | CPC]
1 Oct 1931
  • Wilhelm Keitel was promoted to the rank of Oberst. [Main Article | CPC]
  • Walther von Brauchitsch was promoted to the rank of Generalmajor. [Main Article | CPC]
France
  • Marcel-Bruno Gensoul was made the chief of the 3rd Maritime Region, based at Toulon, France. [Main Article | Facility | CPC]
5 Oct 1931

Japan
  • Yi Geon married Yoshiko Matsudaira in Tokyo, Japan. [Main Article | CPC]
6 Oct 1931
  • In Germany a Sondergerichte (Special Court without the usual safeguards in legal procedure) was setup to deal with the many cases of political violence. [AC]
8 Oct 1931
  • Leipzig was commissioned into service. [Main Article | CPC]
9 Oct 1931

China
10 Oct 1931
  • German President Paul von Hindenburg received Adolf Hitler for the first time; Hindenburg told his confidants that he was not impressed with Hitler. [Main Article | CPC]
Japan
  • Light cruiser Ninghai was launched in Japan. [Main Article | CPC]
  • Chuichi Nagumo was attached to the naval headquarters. [Main Article | CPC]
11 Oct 1931

Photo(s) dated 11 Oct 1931
Kliment Voroshilov, Maxim Gorky, and Joseph Stalin, 11 Oct 1931Heinrich Himmler, Ernst Röhm, Hermann Göring, and Bernhard Rust at the establishment of the Nazi Harzburger Front organization in the namesake town in Germany, 11 Oct 1931
18 Oct 1931

Photo(s) dated 18 Oct 1931
Helmuth and Freya von Moltke on their wedding day, 18 Oct 1931
20 Oct 1931 Photo(s) dated 20 Oct 1931
Carrier Ryujo under construction in Drydock No. 5, Yokosuka, Japan, 20 Oct 1931
26 Oct 1931

Japan
  • Prince Nagahisa was awarded the Grand Cordon of the Order of the Paulownia Flowers. [Main Article | CPC]
31 Oct 1931
  • Hiroaki Abe became the commanding officer of Japanese Navy Destroyer Division 1. [Main Article | CPC]
1 Nov 1931

Germany
  • DipL.-Ing Kurt Tank, Germany's most prolific and innovative aircraft designer, was appointed as chief of design and flight-testing at the obscure aircraft manufacturer Focke-Wulf. [AC]
2 Nov 1931
  • US Marine Corps Squadrons VS-15M and VS-14M embarked in the aircraft carriers USS Lexington and USS Saratoga respectively, the first US Marine squadrons to be assigned to carriers, as part of the organisation in Aircraft, Battle Force. They were to remain carrier-based until late 1934 giving US Marine Corps pilots necessary experience in a realm of naval aviation which, previously, had been largely denied to them. [Main Article | AC]
4 Nov 1931

China
  • Chinese forces under General Ma Zhanshan of Heilongjiang Province attacked a group of Japanese troops at Nenjiang Bridge. Despite numerical advantage, Japanese artillery and light tanks drove off the Chinese attacks by inflicting heavy casualties. [Main Article | CPC]
7 Nov 1931

China
  • Mao Zedong proclaimed the Chinese Soviet Republic in China at Ruijin, Jiangxi Province, China. [CPC]
12 Nov 1931

China
  • He Yingqin was made a member of the treasury committee. [Main Article | CPC]
France
  • Renault convinced Maxime Weygand to allow Renault to compete in the competition for a light tank design for the French Army cavalry. [Main Article | CPC]
15 Nov 1931
  • Dietrich Bonhoeffer was ordained at the St. Matthew's Church in Berlin, Germany. [Main Article | CPC]
China
  • Chinese General Ma Zhanshan of Heilongjiang Province rejected the Japanese ultimatum. [Main Article | CPC]
17 Nov 1931

China
  • Japanese troops attacked Qiqihar, Heilongjiang Province, China. Chinese troops, out-gunned, attempted to hold defensive lines against Japanese artillery bombardment and cavalry charges. [Main Article | CPC]
18 Nov 1931

China
  • Chinese troops under General Ma Zhanshan withdrew from Qiqihar, Heilongjiang Province, China. [Main Article | CPC]
19 Nov 1931

China
  • Chinese General Ma Zhanshan evacuated to Hailun, Heilongjiang Province, China, establishing new defensive positions at Hailun and Baiquan. [Main Article | CPC]
27 Nov 1931

United States
  • Henry Arnold was made the commanding officer of March Field, California, United States. [Main Article | CPC]
1 Dec 1931
  • Lieutenant Commander Morishita was named the commanding officer of destroyer Yuzuki. [Main Article | CPC]
Japan
9 Dec 1931
  • Iwane Matsui was named a member of the Japanese delegation to the Geneva Disarmament Conference. [Main Article | CPC]
11 Dec 1931
  • The Statute of Westminster, passed by the British Parliament, provided the instrument by which the self-governing Dominions gained legislative independence from the United Kingdom. [AC]
13 Dec 1931

United States
  • While visiting New York City in the United States, Winston Churchill was struck by a car as he crossed the street, having looked the wrong way as he crossed. He suffered injuries to the head but would recover fully. [Main Article | CPC]
14 Dec 1931

United Kingdom
  • Douglas Bader suffered an accident at the Reading Aero Club in Reading, England, United Kingdom. His legs, severely injured, were amputated by surgeon J. Leonard Joyce. [Main Article | CPC]
16 Dec 1931
  • Chen Mingshu was named the acting head of the Legislative Yuan of China. [Main Article | CPC]
China
  • Zang Shiyi was named by the Japanese as the governor of Liaoning Province, China. [Main Article | CPC]
20 Dec 1931

France
  • The keel of Jean de Vienne was laid down by the Arsenal de Lorient in Lorient, France. [Main Article | CPC]
21 Dec 1931

China
  • Japanese Kwantung Army launched an offensive from Mukden toward Jinzhou in Liaoning Province, China. [Main Article | CPC]
23 Dec 1931
  • Gorizia was commissioned into service. [Main Article | CPC]
France
  • The prototype GL-831 HY floatplane took its maiden flight. [Main Article | CPC]
Japan
  • Prince Kotohito was named the Chief of the Japanese Army General Staff. [Main Article | CPC]
30 Dec 1931

China
  • He Yingqin stepped down as the deputy director of the Department of Training. [Main Article | CPC]
31 Dec 1931
  • Mineichi Koga was named the commanding officer of battleship Ise. [Main Article | CPC]
  • Chen Mingshu was stepped down from his role as the acting head of the Legislative Yuan of China. [Main Article | CPC]
China
  • Japanese troops reached the Taling River en route toward Jinzhou, Liaoning Province, China. [Main Article | CPC]
Photo(s) dated 31 Dec 1931
Military burial of Japanese Army troops, Manchuria, date unknownInterior of a Japanese troop transport train, Manchuria, date unknownJapanese troops at barracks, possibly in Harbin, Manchuria, circa late 1931A Japanese infantry platoon somewhere in Manchuria, date unknown
See all photos dated 31 Dec 1931

Timeline Section Founder: Thomas Houlihan
Contributors: Alan Chanter, C. Peter Chen, Thomas Houlihan, David Stubblebine
Special Thanks: Rory Curtis




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"With Germany arming at breakneck speed, England lost in a pacifist dream, France corrupt and torn by dissension, America remote and indifferent... do you not tremble for your children?"

Winston Churchill, 1935