1910 | 1911 | 1912 | 1913 | 1914 | 1915 | 1916 | 1917 | 1918 | 1919
1920 | 1921 | 1922 | 1923 | 1924 | 1925 | 1926 | 1927 | 1928 | 1929
1930 | 1931 | 1932 | 1933 | 1934 | 1935 | 1936 | 1937 | 1938 | 1939
1940 | 1941 | 1942 | 1943 | 1944 | 1945 | 1946 | 1947 | 1948 | 1949

1 Jan 1937
  • Battleship King George V was laid down. [Main Article | CPC]
  • The United States began withholding taxes from payrolls per the Social Security Act legistration. [CPC]
  • François Darlan was made the chief of staff of the French Navy. [Main Article | CPC]
  • Captain Clement Moody was named the commanding officer of HMS Eagle. [Main Article | CPC]
2 Jan 1937
  • Galeazzo Ciano secured British signatures on the Italo-British Gentlemen's Agreement in which both Italy and the United Kingdom stated respect for each other's spheres of influence. [Main Article | CPC]
3 Jan 1937
  • Spanish Nationalist forces captured a seven-mile stretch of the Corunna Road north of Madrid, Spain. For the following 12 days, Spanish Republican forces would attempt to counterattack to regain the road, with high casualties on both sides, ending in a stalemate. [Main Article | AC]
7 Jan 1937
  • Erwin Rommel was briefly without a position in the German Army. [Main Article | CPC]
12 Jan 1937

Photo(s) dated 12 Jan 1937
Vincennes making 10.74 knots during trials off Rockland, Maine, United States, at 1258 on 12 Jan 1937Henley ready for launching, Mare Island Navy Yard, California, United States, 12 Jan 1937; note Preston partially visible through the crane rails, at right
15 Jan 1937
  • USS Pollack was commissioned into service with Lieutenant Clarence E. Aldrich in command. [Main Article | CPC]
  • Hermann Göring met Benito Mussolini; when Göring brought up the topic of the German wish to annex Austria, Mussolini showed disapproval. [Main Article | CPC]
16 Jan 1937

Photo(s) dated 16 Jan 1937
Himmler, Heydrich, Daluege, and Adolf Hühnlein at a memorial ceremony on German Police Day, Horst-Wessel-Platz, Berlin, Germany, 16 Jan 1937
17 Jan 1937

Spain
  • With the arrival in Spain of the Italian volunteers the Spanish Nationalists now felt confident to mount an offensive on the southern provinces of Republican Spain. Three Nationalist columns converged on Málaga; The Army of the South (General Gonzalo) advanced from the west, whilst from Grenada, to the north of the city, advanced Colonel Antonio Muñoz Jiménez. The third column, attacking from the north, consisted of the Italians of General Mario Roatta. Although large numbers of Republican troops were available to defend Málaga, they were badly organised and were steadily forced back over the course of the following two weeks. [Main Article | AC]
United Kingdom
  • Upon his father's passing, Oliver Leese was made the Third Baronet of the Leese Baronetcy. [Main Article | CPC]
18 Jan 1937

Japan United Kingdom
  • Roderick Carr was named the commanding officer of Fleet Air Arm units aboard HMS Eagle. [Main Article | CPC]
20 Jan 1937
  • Franklin Roosevelt was inaugurated for second term as US President; in the inauguration speech, he spoke about taking care of the third of the American population who were "ill-housed, ill-clad, and ill-nourished". [Main Article | CPC]
21 Jan 1937

Photo(s) dated 21 Jan 1937
Japanese War Minister Hisaichi Terauchi and Prime Minister Koko Hirota at the Diet of Japan during a historic session that would lead to Hirota
23 Jan 1937
  • Heinrich Himmler disclosed that about 8,000 prisoners were in concentration camps across Germany for protective custody. [Main Article | CPC]
25 Jan 1937

Photo(s) dated 25 Jan 1937
Cummings
26 Jan 1937
  • Civilian Captain Nai Haremaro took command of the Japanese luxury ocean liner Hikawa Maru. [Main Article | Tabular Record of Movement | CPC]
  • Pickerel was commissioned into service. [Main Article | CPC]
  • A second German Civil Service Law was introduced which extended the influence of the NSDAP over Reich State appointments. The new law permitted promotions to be afforded only to those with the correct political (i.e. Nazi) attitude. It afforded Nazi employees the right to refer work problems directly to the Party rather than through their employer, and also provided for the removal of any official who did not support the National Socialist cause (although by this time very few such officials continued to remain in office). [AC]
27 Jan 1937

United States
  • The US Navy and US Marine Corps began Fleet Landing Exercise No. 3 in the San Clemente and San Pedro in and near Los Angeles, California, United States. A small US Army contingent also participated in the exercise. [CPC]
29 Jan 1937

United Kingdom
  • The British Air Ministry placed an order with Handley Page for 180 H.P.52 (later named Hampden) bombers under the specification B.30/36. [Main Article | AC]
Photo(s) dated 29 Jan 1937
Göring trying a dish made by a German housewife during an event celebrating homemakers, Berlin, Germany, 29 Jan 1937
30 Jan 1937
  • Adolf Hitler proclaimed that Germany would continue to guarantee Dutch and Belgian neutrality. [Main Article | CPC]
Germany
  • The Enabling Act of Mar 1933 was renewed by the German Reichstag even though Frick's Interior Ministry had wanted the government to have a larger say, and the Reichstag to give formal assent to new laws. The formal legal principle was retained that laws were, in theory, approved by "the Reich government as a collegium", and not by Hitler alone (this despite the fact that Hitler had long abandoned any pretence what the State was governed by a collective leadership, and instead issued decrees and directives on his own behalf). In a speech to the Reichstag upon the renewal, Hitler formally declared the German withdrawal from the Treaty of Versailles. [Main Article | AC]
Italy
  • The keel of submarine Scirè was laid down by Odero-Terni-Orlando in Muggiano, Lerici, La Spezia, Italy. [Main Article | CPC]
2 Feb 1937
  • Osami Nagano was named the commander-in-chief of the Japanese Navy Combined Fleet. [Main Article | CPC]
Photo(s) dated 2 Feb 1937
HMS Apollo off St. Johns, Virgin Islands, 2 Feb 1937
3 Feb 1937
  • Spanish Nationalist and Italian volunteer forces reached the outskirts of Malaga, Spain. [Main Article | AC]
4 Feb 1937

Photo(s) dated 4 Feb 1937
Hitler speaking to 15,000 rail workers from balcony of Reich Chancellery, 4 Feb 1937; Government Secretary Hans-Heinrich Lammers and Minister of Transport Julius Heinrich Dorpmüller next to Hitler
6 Feb 1937
  • Spanish Nationalist forces entered Malaga, Spain as Republican forces fled toward Almeria. At Madrid, the Nationalists under General Luis Orgaz renewed the attempts to capture the city; this time they concentrated their efforts on cutting the Valencia road where it ran through the Jarama valley to the southeast of the city. General Sebastian Pozas led the Republican forces at Madrid. [Main Article | AC]
Photo(s) dated 6 Feb 1937
President of the House of Peers of the Japanese Diet Fumimaro Konoe at a press conference after receiving orders to form a new government, 2 Jun 1937
8 Feb 1937
  • Falangist troops captured the city of Málaga, Spain during the Spanish Civil War. [Main Article | CPC]
Photo(s) dated 8 Feb 1937
Carriers Enterprise (left) and Yorktown (right) under construction at Newport News, Virginia, United States, 8 Feb 1937President of Boy Scouts of America Walter Head, US President Franklin Roosevelt, and Chief Scout Executive James West at the Oval Office, White House, Washington DC, United States, 8 Feb 1937
9 Feb 1937
  • Martin Bormann ordered that clergymen and theology students were not allowed to join the Nazi Party. [CPC]
  • The first flight of the Blackburn Type B-24 Skua prototype aircraft was made at Brough, Yorkshire, England, United Kingdom. A Dive bomber it became the British Fleet Air Arm’s first monoplane. [Main Article | AC]
10 Feb 1937

France
  • Jean de Vienne was commissioned into service. [Main Article | CPC]
11 Feb 1937
  • General Luis Orgaz's Spanish Nationalist forces drove off General Sebastian Pozas' forces eastward across the River Jarama near Madrid, Spain. [Main Article | AC]
15 Feb 1937
  • In order to restore the situation General Jose Miaja took over personal command of the dispirited Spanish Republican troops on the Jarama Front near Madrid, Spain. [Main Article | AC]
18 Feb 1937
  • Jisaburo Ozawa was named the chief of staff of the Japanese Navy Combined Fleet. [Main Article | CPC]
19 Feb 1937
  • During a public ceremony in Addis Ababa, Abyssinia, two Eritrean nationalists attempted to kill Italian Viceroy Rodolfo Graziani with grenades. Italian guards fired into the crowd indiscriminately. [CPC]
  • John Winant's second term as the Chairman of the United States Social Security Board ended. [Main Article | CPC]
21 Feb 1937
  • The League of Nations Non-Intervention Committee banned foreign nationals from fighting in the Spanish Civil War. [Main Article | CPC]
23 Feb 1937
  • Heinrich Himmler issued the directive to arrest about 2,000 "professional and habitual criminals" in Germany on 9 Mar 1937 in one swift strike; they were to be sent to concentration camps. [Main Article | CPC]
24 Feb 1937
  • When the fighting on the Jarama Front near Madrid, Spain finally came to an end, the Spanish Nationalists had driven a salient into the Republican front-line, but had failed to cut off Madrid. [Main Article | AC]
  • Vincennes was commissioned into service. [Main Article | CPC]
25 Feb 1937
28 Feb 1937
  • The Ki-30 aircraft took its first flight. [Main Article | CPC]
1 Mar 1937
  • Spencer was commissioned into service. [Main Article | CPC]
China
  • Hideki Tojo was named the chief of staff of Kenkichi Ueda (Japanese Kwantung Army in northeastern China). [Main Article | CPC]
Germany
  • Hubert Lanz was promoted to the rank of Oberstleutnant and was made the Chief of Staff of IX Armeekorps. [Main Article | CPC]
Japan
  • Some time during this month, Japanese Rear Admiral Keijii Fukuda and his design team completed the blueprint for the largest class of battleships in the world. This design would later become the Yamato-class battleship. [Main Article | CPC]
  • Crown Prince Yi Un became an instructor in the Japanese Army Academy. [Main Article | CPC]
Taiwan
  • Major General Masataka Hata was named the chief of staff of the Taiwan Army. [CPC]
5 Mar 1937
  • Imperial airways officially opened its new flying-boat base at Hythe on Southampton water in southern England, United Kingdom. This would become the centre for its Empire services. [AC]
  • Newcastle was commissioned into service. [Main Article | CPC]
7 Mar 1937
  • Benito Mussolini's Blackshirts, now formed into two divisions and supported by 250 light tanks and 180 guns, their right flank supported by a mixed brigade of regulares, Requetés and Falangists began their advance aiming for Guadalajara, Spain to the northeast of Madrid, Spain on the main Madrid-Saragossa highway which was allotted as their main approach axis. [Main Article | AC]
Photo(s) dated 7 Mar 1937
Japanese Prime Minister Fumimaro Konoe with his cabinet ministers, 7 Mar 1937; note Naval Minister Mitsumasa Yonai in background
8 Mar 1937
  • Spanish Nationalist forces threatening Madrid, Spain were ordered to attack around the northeast of the city in an attempt to cut it off from the rest of the Republic. Two Nationalist armies advanced towards Guadalajara, which was 34 miles from Madrid, and pushed back the inexperienced Republican troops which faced them. [Main Article | AC]
9 Mar 1937
  • The Armstrong Whitwotrth Whitley Mk I heavy bomber joined No. 10 Squadron RAF and went on to equip no fewer than 20 RAF Squadrons. [Main Article | AC]
United States
  • In the "Fireside Chat" radio address broadcast on this date, US President Franklin Roosevelt attempted to persuade the American public in allowing him to change to change the law in order to appoint more Supreme Court Justices. The American public would generally voice opinions against Roosevelt. [Main Article | CPC]
10 Mar 1937
  • At Guadalajara, Spain, the Spanish Nationalist invasion force attacked in two columns. The right-hand (or western) army, which was commanded by General José Moscardó Ituarte, had little trouble in forcing the opposing Republican troops back, but the left-hand (or eastern) army, which was composed of Italian volunteers and led by General Mario Roatta, experienced stiffening resistance after their capture of Brihuega on this date. [Main Article | AC]
United States
  • The US Navy and US Marine Corps' Fleet Landing Exercise No. 3 in the San Clemente and San Pedro areas, California, United States was completed. [CPC]
11 Mar 1937

Photo(s) dated 11 Mar 1937
Raeder, Göring, and Fritsch joined Blomberg in the celebration of the 40th anniversary of the German military, 11 Mar 1937
12 Mar 1937

Germany
  • Georg von Küchler was named the commanding officer of 1st Military District with personal command over I Corps. [Main Article | CPC]
14 Mar 1937
  • HMS Bedouin (L67) was commissioned into British Royal Navy service with Commander J. A. McCoy in command. [AC]
  • The Vatican City announced that Germany had broken various clauses of the agreement signed between the two countries on 20 Jul 1933. [CPC]
Azerbaijan
  • The 9th Extraordinary All-Azerbaijani Congress of Soviets approved the new constitution. [CPC]
Photo(s) dated 14 Mar 1937
Survivors of the British Motor Ship Silver Larch posed with Louisville
15 Mar 1937
  • Werner Mölders was named the squadron leader of the 1st Squadron of Jagdgeschwader 334. [Main Article | CPC]
  • Italian General Mario Roatta halted his advance on Guadalajara, Spain to regroup. [Main Article | AC]
Photo(s) dated 15 Mar 1937
Spanish Nationalist field gun crew, the Battle of Guadalajara, Spain, Mar 1937, photo 1 of 2Spanish Nationalist infantry in the field, Battle of Guadalajara, Spain, Mar 1937, photo 1 of 2Spanish Nationalist troops treating a wounded comrade, Battle of Guadalajara, Spain, Mar 1937Spanish Nationalist machine gun crew, the Battle of Guadalajara, Spain, Mar 1937
See all photos dated 15 Mar 1937
16 Mar 1937

Photo(s) dated 16 Mar 1937
Göring reviewing a Luftwaffe formation at the courtyard of the Reich Aviation Ministry, Berlin, Germany, 16 Mar 1937
17 Mar 1937

United States
  • USS Permit was commissioned into service with Lieutenant Charles O. Humphreys in command. [Main Article | CPC]
18 Mar 1937
  • Benito Mussolini staged an event for propaganda in which he received a ceremonial sword from Arab leaders from Italian Libya, symbolizing him as the proector of Arab peoples. [Main Article | CPC]
Spain
  • Spanish Republic forces under Colonel Enrique Jurado Barrio launched a counter-attack against Italian troops near Guadalajara, Spain. Two divisions, assisted by Russian tanks and aircraft, fell on the leading Italian units. The ferocity of the counterattack surprised the Italians and their retreat rapidly became a rout. General José Moscardó Ituarte's Nationalist troops, previously advancing steadily, was forced to fall back as the Italians lost Brihuega. Although the Nationalist attack on Guadalajara had gained some ground when the battle finally ended, it had failed to achieve the decisive result which had been hoped for. Also on this date, the Italian Blackshirt Division 'Dio lo vuole' in Spain was disbanded; later in the year, the remaining two divisions of Blackshirts were also disbanded and reorganized into three Italian-Spanish brigades. [Main Article | CPC]
19 Mar 1937
  • The second prototype of the Mitsubishi Ki-15 aircraft took flight. [Main Article | CPC]
20 Mar 1937

Photo(s) dated 20 Mar 1937
A column of vehicles destroyed by aircraft pushed to the side of a road, Battle of Guadalajara, Spain, Mar 1937Spanish civilian checking out a building destroyed in the Battle of Guadalajara, Spain, Mar 1937
21 Mar 1937
  • The Papacy's encyclical (Mit Brenneder Sorge) was commanded to be read out in all Catholic churches. Much of it expressed concern over breaches in the Concorat agreement on education and religious freedoms in Germany. The letter also called for a cessation of anti-Christian propaganda and rejected the Nazi position regarding Political mastery over the Catholic Church. [AC]
22 Mar 1937

Photo(s) dated 22 Mar 1937
German carrier hull Flugzeugträger A (future Graf Zeppelin) under construction, Kiel, Germany, 22 Mar 1937, photo 1 of 9German carrier hull Flugzeugträger A (future Graf Zeppelin) under construction, Kiel, Germany, 22 Mar 1937, photo 2 of 9German carrier hull Flugzeugträger A (future Graf Zeppelin) under construction, Kiel, Germany, 22 Mar 1937, photo 3 of 9German carrier hull Flugzeugträger A (future Graf Zeppelin) under construction, Kiel, Germany, 22 Mar 1937, photo 4 of 9
See all photos dated 22 Mar 1937
29 Mar 1937

Photo(s) dated 29 Mar 1937
A column of Spanish Nationalist troops, Battle of Guadalajara, Spain, 29 Mar 1937Wounded Spanish Nationalist soldier supported by two comrades near the end of the Battle of Guadalajara, Spain, 29 Mar 1937
30 Mar 1937

Japan
  • Kichisaburo Nomura stepped down as a Naval Councilor on the Supreme War Council. [Main Article | CPC]
31 Mar 1937
  • Bombers of the German Condor Legion in Spain, under the command of Lieutenant-Colonel Freiherr von Richthofen, bombed the mountain strongholds of the Republicans, not easily reached by artillery, and battered the key village of Ochandiano before it was quickly taken by the Army of Navarre. In the same region, the Spanish Nationalist forces, commanded by General Emilio Mola y Vidal, began an offensive against Basque forces in Vizcaya with the intention of capturing the Basque stronghold of Bilbao. [Main Article | AC]
Germany
  • Georg von Küchler stepped down as the deputy president of the military court system. [Main Article | CPC]
1 Apr 1937
  • Hugo Sperrle was promoted to the rank of Generalleutnant. [Main Article | CPC]
  • Air Vice Marshal John H. S. Tyssen became the commanding officer of the No. 12 Group RAF. [CPC]
Japan
  • Akagi was taken out of service and entered drydock for extensive modernization at Sasebo Naval Arsenal, Japan. Records showed the date of this event simply as "Apr 1937"; the exact date was not noted. [Main Article | Facility | Tabular Record of Movement | CPC]
  • Prince Naruhiko of Higashikuni, an aviation enthusiast, christened the Ki-15 aircraft that was about to make a record flight from Japan to Europe "Kamikaze". [Main Article | CPC]
5 Apr 1937

Russia
  • Submarine S-7 was launched at Gorky, Russia. [Main Article | CPC]
Photo(s) dated 5 Apr 1937
Manuel Quezon giving a radio address regarding woman suffrage and speeding up the Philippine independence timeline, Washington DC, United States, 5 Apr 1937, photo 1 of 2Manuel Quezon giving a radio address regarding woman suffrage and speeding up the Philippine independence timeline, Washington DC, United States, 5 Apr 1937, photo 2 of 2
6 Apr 1937

Japan
  • Kichisaburo Nomura was named the principal of Gakushuin school. [Main Article | CPC]
9 Apr 1937

United Kingdom
  • A Ki-15/Karigane aircraft, named "Kamikaze", landed in London. The flight from Tokyo to London broke the world record, while "Kamikaze" became the first Japanese aircraft to fly over Europe. [Main Article | CPC]
11 Apr 1937

Photo(s) dated 11 Apr 1937
Ju 89 prototype heavy bomber at rest, Apr 1937, photo 1 of 2
12 Apr 1937
  • British RAF engineer Frank Whittle successfully bench-tested his first turbojet engine which he had tried to get built since 1930. [AC]
13 Apr 1937

Photo(s) dated 13 Apr 1937
Ark Royal immediately after launching, 13 Apr 1937
15 Apr 1937

Russia
  • Viktor Abakumov was assigned to the 4th Department of the GUGB of the Soviet NKVD. [Main Article | CPC]
16 Apr 1937

Photo(s) dated 16 Apr 1937
Dr. H. Lammers, Dr. J. Dorpmüller, Dr. F. Gürtner, Milch, Göring, Dr. W. Ohnesorge, R. Darr at inaugural meeting of German Academy of Aeronautics Research, Berlin, Germany, 16 Apr 1937
19 Apr 1937
  • In Spain, the Falange and Carlist Movement were united and became the FET (Falange Espanola Tradicionalista y de las Junta de Ofensive Nacional-Sindicalista). [AC]
20 Apr 1937
  • In Spain, two Anarchist battalions, who were dissatisfied with their movement's representation in the Republican Government, went on strike and pulled out, leaving a 15-mile gap in the front line in front of the little town of Marquina directly east of Guernica. Von Richthofen, commanding the German Condor Legion, quickly realised that if the gap was exploited, the Republican Forces in the area would be forced to withdraw and could be trapped if the single bridge at Guernica was destroyed by bombing. [Main Article | AC]
Germany
  • Georg von Küchler was promoted to the rank of General der Artillerie. [Main Article | CPC]
Photo(s) dated 20 Apr 1937
Josef Dietrich, Adolf Hitler, and Heinrich Himmler at the entrance of the Chancellery in Berlin, Germany, 20 Apr 1937 during a celebration for HitlerPortrait of Chancellor Adolf Hitler, 20 Apr 1937
23 Apr 1937
  • In Spain, the Madrid Defence Junta was dissolved. [AC]
Photo(s) dated 23 Apr 1937
German police chiefs Kurt Daluege, Heinrich Lankenau, and Adolf von Bomhard, Bremen, Germany, 23 Apr 1937Daluege, Lankenau, and Bomhard reviewing police forces, Bremen, Germany, 23 Apr 1937, photo 1 of 2Daluege, Lankenau, and Bomhard reviewing police forces, Bremen, Germany, 23 Apr 1937, photo 2 of 2
24 Apr 1937
  • Britain and France relieved Belgium of its Locarno Treaties responsibilities. [CPC]
26 Apr 1937
  • Operation Rügen: German and Italian bombers attacked the Spanish city of Guernica, killing between 200 and 1,000 civilians. [Main Article | CPC]
27 Apr 1937

Photo(s) dated 27 Apr 1937
Hull approaching an anchorage in the lower end of Iliuliuk Bay, in the Aleutian Islands, North Pacific, 27 Apr 1937
28 Apr 1937
  • Basque forces, fighting on the side of the Spanish Republicans, surrendered at Durango and Guernica, Spain. [Main Article | AC]
United Kingdom
  • The British Royal Navy issued the order for the future battleship HMS Howe. [Main Article | CPC]
Photo(s) dated 28 Apr 1937
Joseph Goebbels speaking at the Ordensburg Vogelsang school in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, 22-29 Apr 1937
29 Apr 1937

Germany
  • In a speech to local party district leaders Adolf Hitler explained that only one political party was needed in a society united with one will. [Main Article | AC]
Photo(s) dated 29 Apr 1937
Hitler visiting the Ordensburg Vogelsang school in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, 29 Apr 1937, photo 1 of 2; Dr. Robert Ley seen with HitlerHitler visiting the Ordensburg Vogelsang school in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, 29 Apr 1937, photo 2 of 2; Dr. Robert Ley seen with HitlerGerman State Secretary Hans Lammers at his desk with his adjutants, Berlin, Germany, 29 Apr 1937
30 Apr 1937
  • Douglas MacArthur married Jean Faircloth in a civil ceremony. [Main Article | CPC]
  • The Spanish Nationalist battleship Espana sank after hitting a mine off Cape Penas near Santander during the blockade of Bilbao, Spain. [Main Article | AC]
  • Seal was commissioned into service. [Main Article | CPC]
1 May 1937
  • Remy Van Lierde began his training as a pilot. [Main Article | CPC]
  • Dunkerque was commissioned into service. [Main Article | CPC]
  • Adolf Hitler declared that all German children were to be raised as loyal Nazi Germans. [Main Article | CPC]
  • Destroyer Kashi was transferred to the Manchukuo Navy and was renamed Haiwei and would serve as Manchukuo's flag ship. [Main Article | CPC]
Photo(s) dated 1 May 1937
Hitler Youth, Bund girls, and naval Hitler Youth children on a parade ground, Germany, 1 May 1937Nazi Party youth organization members at the Berlin Olympic Stadium, Germany, 1 May 1937
2 May 1937

Japan
  • Prince Nagahisa's son Prince Michihisa was born. [Main Article | CPC]
3 May 1937

China
  • Zhang Jinghui, temporarily shedding his government title and acting only as a civilian, oversaw the funeral service and the re-internment of his sworn brother Zhang Zuolin, assassinated by the Japanese in 1928, in northeastern China. [Main Article | CPC]
5 May 1937

Photo(s) dated 5 May 1937
Prof. Troost, Hitler, Mrs. Troost, Adolf Ziegler (President of the Academy of Fine Arts), and Goebbels at the House of German Art, Munich, Germany, 5 May 1937British Ambassador in Berlin Sir Nevile Henderson, 5 May 1937
6 May 1937

United States
  • Lieutenant Colonel W. T. H. Galliford commanded a unit of US Marines for rescue and riot control duties at Lakehurst, New Jersey, United States after the crash of German airship Hindenburg. He would remain in this role until 8 May. [CPC]
7 May 1937
  • The German Condor Legion Fighter Group, equipped with He 51 biplanes, arrived in Spain to assist Francisco Franco's forces in the Spanish Civil War. [Main Article | CPC]
8 May 1937
  • Stalin authorized the reintroduction of political officers in all military units above the size of a division. [Main Article | AC]
  • Street fighting broke out in Barcelona, Spain with the CNT (Confederacion Nacional de Trabaja [the Anarcho-Syndicalist Trades Union]) and POUM battling with the Communists, who are supported by the Generalitat. The fighting would last until 8 May. [AC]
10 May 1937

Photo(s) dated 10 May 1937
Kirishima in Tsukumo Bay, Japan, 10 May 1937, after her 1935 modernization
11 May 1937 Photo(s) dated 11 May 1937
B2M, A2N, and Ki-4 aircraft operating aboard carrier Kaga, 11 May 1937View of the edge of KagaKing George VI of the United Kingdom with Canadian Prime Minister Mackenzie King at the Buckingham Palace, London, England, United Kingdom, 11 May 1937
12 May 1937

United Kingdom
  • The coronation of King George VI took place at Westminster Abbey, London, England, United Kingdom. [Main Article | CPC]
14 May 1937
  • A purge began in the Soviet military. [CPC]
15 May 1937
  • Largo Caballero resigned as Spanish Prime Minister. [AC]
17 May 1937
  • Dr. Juan Negrin became the new Spanish Prime Minister. His government would be dominated by Communists. [AC]
19 May 1937

Photo(s) dated 19 May 1937
US Coast Guard cutter John C. Spencer departing on her maiden voyage to US Territory of Alaska from New York Navy Yard, New York, United States, 19 May 1937
20 May 1937

United Kingdom
  • The Fairey Battle light bomber entered service with No. 63 Squadron at RAF Upwood near Upwood, England, United Kingdom. [Main Article | CPC]
United States
21 May 1937
  • As reprisal for the failed assassination of Italian Viceroy Rodolfo Graziani earlier this year, Italian troops massacred the entire community of Debre Libanos in Abyssinia, killing 320. [CPC]
22 May 1937

Photo(s) dated 22 May 1937
Admiral Graf Spee at the Spithead Naval Review, southern England, United Kingdom, 22 May 1937
24 May 1937
  • The Soviet Central Committee decided to place the arrested Marshal Mikhail Nikolaievich Tukhachevsky (the former First Deputy Commissar of Defence) and seven other Military Commanders on trial, accused of plotting an army conspiracy to overthrow Stalin. [AC]
United Kingdom
  • Garland entered drydocks at Sheerness, England, United Kingdom for a scheduled overhaul. [Main Article | CPC]
25 May 1937

United Kingdom
  • British Royal Air Force took ownership over prototype Hurricane fighter K5083 at Martelesham Heath airfield in Suffolk, England, United Kingdom. [Main Article | CPC]
28 May 1937
  • Neville Chamberlain became the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. [Main Article | CPC]
  • The forerunner to the modern Volkswagen car company, Gesellschaft zur Vorbereitung des Deutschen Volkswagens mbH, was established. [CPC]
United Kingdom
  • Neville Chamberlain appointed the unpopular Jewish Liberal Leslie Hore-Belisha as Secretary of State for War. [AC]
29 May 1937
  • The German pocket battleship Deutschland was bombed by Spanish Republican aircraft off the Spanish coast. Thirty-one German sailors were killed and 101 were injured. [Main Article | AC]
United Kingdom
  • Hurricane prototype fighter K5083 was revealed to the public during the Empire Air Day exhibitions at Felixstowe and Martlesham in Suffolk, England, United Kingdom. [Main Article | CPC]
31 May 1937
  • The Spanish Republicans began an offensive to capture Segovia, Spain. Three Republican Divisions, under the command of General Domingo Moriones, broke through the Spanish Nationalist front-line at San Ildefonso and captured La Granja. Nationalist troops, led by General José Varela, were detached from the Madrid front and used to mount a counter-attack which stopped any further Republican advance. [Main Article | AC]
1 Jun 1937
  • Lieutenant Commander Isamu Fujita was named the commanding officer of destroyer Yuzuki. [Main Article | CPC]
United Kingdom
  • The keel of HMS Howe was laid down by the Fairfield Shipbuilding and Engineering Company at Govan, Scotland, United Kingdom. [Main Article | CPC]
2 Jun 1937
  • A S-43 aircraft operated by Linea Aerea Nacional de Chile disappeared over the Sea of Chile; all 9 aboard were never seen again. [Main Article | CPC]
3 Jun 1937
  • Spanish Nationalist General Emilio Mola y Vidal was killed in an air crash and was replaced by General Fidel Dávila Arrondo. [Main Article | AC]
Photo(s) dated 3 Jun 1937
Japanese Prime Minister Fumimaro Konoe and his first cabinet, Tokyo, Japan, Jun 1937
4 Jun 1937
  • Prince Fumimaro Konoe became the 34th Prime Minister of Japan. [Main Article | CPC]
6 Jun 1937

Photo(s) dated 6 Jun 1937
Émile Bertin at Lorient, France, 6 Jun 1937
7 Jun 1937
  • USS Pollack departed Portsmouth Navy Yard, Kittery, Maine, United States, starting her shakedown cruise in the Caribbean Sea. [Main Article | CPC]
8 Jun 1937
  • The Tribal-class destroyer HMS Afridi was launched by Lady Foster at Vickers-Armstrong’s High Walker Yard on the Tyne in England, United Kingdom. [AC]
United States
  • Major General Ben H. Fuller, who had been the 15th Commandant of the United States Marine Corps, passed away in Washington DC, United States. [CPC]
11 Jun 1937
  • Basque forces withdrew behind the "Ring of Iron" defences around Bilbao, Spain as Nationalist forces pressed on with their attacks, but these proved to be less than effective when subjected to heavy artillery bombardment. Under cover of the bombardment, the Nationalists were able to breach the outer defences and the "Ring of Iron" collapsed. [Main Article | AC]
  • Do 18F "Zyklon" flying boat took its maiden flight. [Main Article | CPC]
  • Spitfire fighter designer Reginald J. Mitchell died of cancer, aged 42. [Main Article | AC]
Russia
  • Soviet Marshal Mikhail Nikolaievich Tukhachevsky and seven other Soviet military leaders were shot after "confessing", under NKVD torture, to a plot to overthrow Joseph Stalin. [AC]
12 Jun 1937
  • Secret order by Reinhard Heydrich of the German SS organization: Jewish convicted criminals were to be placed into protective custody after completion of their sentence from the justice department. [CPC]
Photo(s) dated 12 Jun 1937
Salmon ready for launching at the Electric Boat Company shipyard, Groton, Connecticut, United States, 12 Jun 1937
13 Jun 1937
  • During the night, most of the civilian inhabitants of Bilbao, Spain were evacuated by the Basque forces. [Main Article | AC]
14 Jun 1937

Hawaii
16 Jun 1937
  • In Spain the POUM (Parttido Obrero de Unification Marxists) was outlawed and its leaders were arrested. [AC]
Photo(s) dated 16 Jun 1937
USS Perch at Portsmouth, New Hampshire, United States, 16 Jun 1937
17 Jun 1937
  • The Spanish Republican battleship Jaime I blew up and sank at Cartagena, Spain. [Main Article | AC]
Russia
  • Red Army planner Valentin Trifonov wrote to Joseph Stalin, noting that Germany was the likely military enemy of the Soviet Union, and the Soviet Union should counter this by focusing on a defensive strategy rather than an offensive one (as the defensive strategy would be more cost-effective). [Main Article | CPC]
18 Jun 1937
  • General Mariano Gamir Ulibarri and his troops abandoned Bilbao, Spain. [Main Article | AC]
19 Jun 1937
  • Spanish Nationalist forces entered Bilbao, Spain. [Main Article | AC]
21 Jun 1937
  • Andres Nin, the leader of the Marxist POUM in Spain, was murdered by Soviet agents. [AC]
  • Wolfgang Falck's son Klaus was born. [Main Article | CPC]
Russia
  • Soviet official Valentin Trifonov, a former VCheKa member, was arrested and would be interrogated by members of the GUGB of the Soviet NKVD, including future Soviet counterintelligence chief Viktor Abakumov. [Main Article | CPC]
Photo(s) dated 21 Jun 1937
Texas in the Gatun Locks of Panama Canal, en route to the US east coast, 21 Jun 1937
24 Jun 1937
  • Gridley was commissioned into service. [Main Article | CPC]
26 Jun 1937

Russia
  • Moscow City Party Committee secretary Semyon Korytny was arrested for having family ties to Joseph Stalin's perceived political enemy Iona Yakir. [Main Article | CPC]
27 Jun 1937

Germany
  • Pastor Martin Niemöller delivered an outspoken sermon in Berlin, Germany in which he made it clear that a Christian's obligation was to "obey God rather than man". Arrested for anti-state activity he was sentenced to seven months in prison in Mar 1938, after which Hitler had him committed to a Concentration Camp, from which he emerged alive in 1945. [AC]
Photo(s) dated 27 Jun 1937
Prof. Bruckmann, Mayor of Nuremberg Willy Liebel, Ribbentrop, Hitler, and Speer in Nuremberg, Germany, 27 Jun 1937
30 Jun 1937

United States
  • The active duty strength of the United States Marine Corps was reported to be 1,312 officers and 16,911 enlisted men for a total of 18,223. [CPC]
Photo(s) dated 30 Jun 1937
Hitler Youth boys from Steglitz and Tempelhof areas of Berlin waiting to board a train for summer camp, Berlin, Germany, late Jun 1937
1 Jul 1937
  • In compliance with an order of the Navy Department, all United States Marine Corps Reserve tactical squadrons were designated as scouting squadrons. [CPC]
Photo(s) dated 1 Jul 1937
Goebbels speaking to workers, Berlin, Germany, 1 Jul 1937
2 Jul 1937
  • Sunfish (S-class) was commissioned into service. [Main Article | CPC]
French Indochina
  • The British Air Ministry reported Japanese activity on Spratly and Itu Aba in the Spratly Islands in the South China Sea. [CPC]
5 Jul 1937

United Kingdom
  • Garland exited drydocks at Sheerness, England, United Kingdom. [Main Article | CPC]
6 Jul 1937
  • After the failure of the Spanish Nationalist attack upon Guadalajara the Spanish Republican troops around Madrid went on to the offensive. General José Miaja ordered two Republican Corps (led by Generals Juan Modesto and Enrique Jurado) to advance southwards from the El Escorial-Madrid road towards Brunette. Their aim was to cut off those Nationalist forces besieging Madrid from the west. At the start of the 20-day battle that ensued, the initial thrust captured Brunette and drove a 5 mile salient into the Nationalist front-line. The Nationalist armies, under the command of General José Varela, then rallied and mounted a counter-attack which forced the republicans almost all the way back to their start line. [Main Article | AC]
China
  • Japanese troops conducted a night-time exercise near the border of China and the Japanese-sponsored puppet nation of Manchukuo in northeastern China. The Japanese authorities failed to give the Chinese notice, thus the Chinese guards regarded the Japanese troops as invaders and fired a number of rifle shots at them. At 2300 hours, the Japanese troops fired back, but would very soon pull back. Japanese Major Kiyonao Ichiki reported one of his men was missing after the brief fire fight, suspecting that he was captured by the Chinese. Before midnight, demands for the return of the missing soldiers were being sent to Chinese military headquarters. [Main Article | CPC]
7 Jul 1937
  • The USAAC placed an order for 210 Curtiss P-36A fighters, which was the largest US peacetime contract ever awarded for fighter aircraft up to that date. [Main Article | AC]
China
  • Even though the missing Japanese soldier suspected to have been captured by the Chinese near Beiping turned up, none of the Japanese officers at the regimental level were informed. [Main Article | CPC]
United States
8 Jul 1937

China
  • At 0330 hours, four Japanese mountain gun crews and a machine gun company were ordered to prepare for an invasion of China. At 0500 hours (still 7 Jul 1937 for the western world on the other side of the International Date Line), the Japanese opened fire, starting the Second Sino-Japanese War. Japanese Prime Minister Fumimaro Konoe held a cabinet meeting in an attempt to find a solution to de-escalate the situation, but the Japanese Army was working in the opposite direction, planning to move the Japanese Chosen Army and Kwantung Army units to the contested region. [Main Article | CPC]
  • The Chinese Communist Party urged its members over a radio announcement to cooperate with the Nationalist Party in the war against Japan. [CPC]
10 Jul 1937

Photo(s) dated 10 Jul 1937
Chinese troops in Wanping, China, Jul 1937Chiang Kaishek announcing the start of a war of resistance against the Japanese invasion, Lushan, China, 10 Jul 1937
11 Jul 1937
  • Units of the Japanese Chosen Army and Kwantung Army, previously ordered to march into China on the first day of the Second Sino-Japanese War, was recalled due to political reasons. [Main Article | CPC]
Japan
  • Masafumi Arima was assigned to Cruiser Division 10. [Main Article | CPC]
12 Jul 1937

Photo(s) dated 12 Jul 1937
Yorktown making 17.5 knots astern during her preliminary standardization trials, run #41, off Rockland, Maine, United States, 12-21 July 1937
15 Jul 1937
  • Alfredo Oriani was commissioned into service. [Main Article | CPC]
China
  • The Chinese Communist Party issued the declaration of cooperation with the Nationalist Party in the war against Japan. [CPC]
Germany
  • In Germany, the construction of Buchenwald Concentration Camp began by the inmates of the Lichtenburg Concentration Camp. [Main Article | Facility | CPC]
16 Jul 1937

China
17 Jul 1937
  • The Soviet Union and the United Kingdom signed a naval agreement in which the USSR was allowed a Baltic Fleet equal in size to the German presence in the same region. This would lead to the independence of the Soviet Navy by Nov 1937; presently, the Soviet Navy was subservient to the Red Army. [CPC]
18 Jul 1937
  • Hitler opened the Exhibition of German Art but was outraged at some of the paintings, submitted for his approval, which he declared to be too modernist for display. [Main Article | AC]
  • 30 Soviet-built I-15 fighters were delivered to the Chinese Air Force at Lanzhou, Gansu, China. [Main Article | CPC]
Photo(s) dated 18 Jul 1937
Chancellor Hitler speaking at the opening of the House of German Art, Munich, Germany, 18 Jul 1937Chancellor Hitler touring the House of German Art, Munich, Germany, 18 Jul 1937Chancellor Adolf Hitler speaking at the opening of the House of German Art, Munich, Germany, 18 Jul 1937Göring and Hitler touring the House of German Art museum, Munich, Germany, 18 Jul 1937; Professor Ziegler seen speaking with Hitler
19 Jul 1937
  • In Munich, Germany, the "Exhibition of Degenerate Art" opened, containing some 650 exhibits confiscated from museums, galleries and public buildings by a committee set up by Goebbels. The Exhibition, opened by Adolf Ziegler, was an instant success with over two million visitors in the first four months; after which it went on tour around Germany. [AC]
21 Jul 1937

Photo(s) dated 21 Jul 1937
USS Yorktown underway, 21 Jul 1937
23 Jul 1937

Photo(s) dated 23 Jul 1937
Aoba undergoing sea trials, 23 Jul 1937
25 Jul 1937

China
  • Japanese 20th Division clashed with Chinese troops at the city of Langfang, China, major rail junction between Beiping and Tianjin. This was the first major battle of the Second Sino-Japanese War. [Main Article | CPC]
  • Light carrier Hosho's aircraft shot down a Chinese B-10 bobmer near Shanghai, China. [Main Article | Tabular Record of Movement | CPC]
  • Destroyer Squadron 29 of US Asiatic Fleet departed Yantai, Shandong Province, China and made rendezvous with USS Augusta at sea. [Main Article | CPC]
Photo(s) dated 25 Jul 1937
Launching of battleship Vittorio Veneto, Trieste, Italy, 25 Jul 1937
26 Jul 1937

China
  • A Japanese brigade, supported by aircraft, attacked the Guanghua Gate of the Beiping, China city wall. [Main Article | CPC]
  • Japanese women and children began evacuating from Qingdao, Shandong Province, China. [CPC]
27 Jul 1937

China
  • Japanese troops besieged the city of Tongzhou (Tungchow), China. [Main Article | CPC]
28 Jul 1937
  • The IRA attempted a bombing assassination against King George VI in Belfast. [Main Article | CPC]
China
  • Troops of the Japanese 20th Division and three independent combined brigades, with air support, launched an offensive against Beiping, China. Discouraged, Chinese General Song Zheyuan, head of the Hebei-Chahar Political Council and the commanding officer of the 29th Route Army, announced defeat and withdrew from the city of Tianjin. [Main Article | CPC]
  • Zhao Dengyu was killed in battle at Nanyuan near Beiping, China. [Main Article | CPC]
Russia
  • USS Augusta and Destroyer Squadron 29 of US Asiatic Fleet arrived at Vladivostok, Russia. [Main Article | CPC]
29 Jul 1937

China
  • Troops of the Japanese Army 5th Division and Japanese naval troops separately attacked the Chinese city of Tianjin. In Tongzhou near Beiping, 5,000 Japanese-trained East Hebei Army soldiers mutinied against the Japanese. The rebellion soon became out of control. Japanese civilians were rounded up and massacred, and there were many incidences of rape committed against Japanese women. Much of the city was burned down by the time East Hebei Army officers regained control of their men. The militant factions in the Japanese government would use this incident as one of the justifications for starting the Second Sino-Japanese War. [Main Article | CPC]
Photo(s) dated 29 Jul 1937
Japanese troops at Lugou Bridge, near Beijing, China, Jul 1937, photo 1 of 2Japanese troops at Lugou Bridge, near Beijing, China, Jul 1937, photo 2 of 2
30 Jul 1937
  • Do 18 flying boat "Aeolus" was damaged during an ocean landing and was lost. [Main Article | CPC]
China
  • Defending troops in Tianjin, China were ordered to withdraw from the city. [Main Article | CPC]
Photo(s) dated 30 Jul 1937
Japanese troops in Tongzhou, China, 30 Jul 1937
31 Jul 1937

China
  • Zhao Dengyu was posthumously promoted to the rank of general second class. [Main Article | CPC]
1 Aug 1937
  • Wilhelm Keitel was promoted to the rank of General der Artillerie. [Main Article | CPC]
China
  • Hideki Tojo led Japanese troops at Battle of Chahar in China. [Main Article | CPC]
Russia
  • Destroyer Squadron 29 of US Asiatic Fleet departed Vladivostok, Russia for Yantai, Shandong Province, China while USS Augusta departed the same port for Qingdao, Shandong Province, China. [Main Article | CPC]
2 Aug 1937

Japan Taiwan
  • Lieutenant General Mikio Tsutsumi was named the commanding officer of the Taiwan Army. [CPC]
Photo(s) dated 2 Aug 1937
Troops of the Chinese 88th Division marching toward Shanghai, China, circa early Aug 1937; note WW1-era German helmets
3 Aug 1937
  • A S-43 aircraft operated by Pan Am Grace Airways crashed into the sea 20 miles off Cristobal, Panama; all 14 aboard were killed. [Main Article | CPC]
4 Aug 1937
  • The US Marine Corps League, officially formed in 1923, was finally chartered by US Congress. [CPC]
China
  • The Chinese 29th Brigade under General Liu Ruzhen withdrew from Beiping, China. [Main Article | CPC]
5 Aug 1937
  • The Soviet military purge that began in the previous month expanded to most establishments in the Soviet Union. [CPC]
  • Emperor Showa ordered that Chinese prisoners of war would not receive the treatment demanded upon by international law. [Main Article | CPC]
6 Aug 1937
  • Falangist artillery bombarded Madrid, Spain during the Spanish Civil War. [Main Article | CPC]
China
  • He Yingqin was made the commanding officer of the 4th War Area. [Main Article | CPC]
7 Aug 1937

China
  • Chinese Navy began planning for the blockade of the mouth of the Yangtze River at Jiangsu Province, China. [Main Article | CPC]
8 Aug 1937

China
  • Japan declared Chinese cities of Beiping and Tianjin secure. [Main Article | CPC]
  • A S-43 aircraft operated by China National Aviation Corporation was ditched due to rough weather at Chilang Point, Daya Bay, Guangdong Province, China; 3 were killed, 8 survived. [Main Article | CPC]
9 Aug 1937

China
  • Chinese Peace Preservation Corps troops shot and killed Japanese Special Naval Landing Forces Lieutenant Isao Oyama as he attempted to enter Hongqiao Airport, Shanghai, China without authorization. [Main Article | CPC]
  • A special national assembly was called at Nanjing, China, with representatives of both Nationalist and Communist Parties present, to discuss the war with Japan. [CPC]
10 Aug 1937
  • In Spain, the Council of Aragon was dissolved by the Republican Government. [AC]
China
  • Japanese Consul General in China demanded the Chinese to withdraw the Peace Preservation Corps from Shanghai due to the death of Lieutenant Isao Oyama at Hongqiao Airport on the previous day. Meanwhile, additional Japanese troops began arriving in Shanghai. [Main Article | CPC]
11 Aug 1937
  • The first flight of the Boulton Paul Defiant aircraft was made at Wolverhampton, England, United Kingdom with Chief Test Pilot Cecil Feather at the controls. This first prototype was flown without the gun turret and with ballast added to compensate for the turret and its gunner. As such it achieved a satisfactory 302 mph, and the flying characteristics were pronounced as excellent. [Main Article | AC]
China
  • Chinese trawlers Ganlu, Aori, and Qingtian and gunboats Suining, and Weining destroyed lighthouses, buoys, and other navigation aids at the mouth of the Yangtze River at Jiangsu Province, China to disrupt an expected naval incursion. On the ground, additional Chinese troops began arriving in Shanghai. [Main Article | CPC]
  • Tongji was scuttled in the Yangtze River at Jiangyin, Jiangsu Province, China. [Main Article | CPC]
Japan Photo(s) dated 11 Aug 1937
USS Permit underway during shakedown period, 11 Aug 1937
12 Aug 1937

China
  • Battle of Chahar in China ended with Japanese victory. [Main Article | CPC]
  • USS Augusta delivered 50 Marines and 57 Navy personnel to reinforce the US 4th Marine Regiment stationed at Shanghai, China. [Main Article | CPC]
  • Chinese light cruisers Hairong, Pinghai, Ninghai, Haichou, and Yixian and training cruiser Yingrui arrived at the mouth of the Yangtze River at Jiangyin, Jiangsu Province, China in anticipation of a Japanese attack. On the same day, 8 older naval vessels, 20 civilian transports, and 8 civilian barges were sunk in the river to block Japanese warships from entering. [Main Article | CPC]
  • Haiqi was scuttled in the Yangtze River at Jiangyin, Jiangsu Province, China to block Japanese movement up the river. [Main Article | CPC]
  • The Chinese government gave Chiang Kaishek special powers for the duration of the war. [Main Article | CPC]
13 Aug 1937

China
  • Japanese troops and men of Chinese Peace Preservation Corps exchanged small arms fire at the Zhabei, Wusong, and Jiangwan districts of Shanghai, China starting at 0900 hours, thus opening the Second Battle of Shanghai. At 1500 hours, Japanese troops crossed the Bazi Bridge in Zhabei district amidst mortar attacks by troops of Chinese 88th Division. At 1600 hours, warships of Japanese 3rd Fleet bombarded Chinese positions. [Main Article | CPC]
  • USS Augusta departed Qingdao, Shandong Province, China with Admiral Harry Yarnell of US Asiatic Fleet aboard. [Main Article | CPC]
  • Units of the US 4th Marine Regiment were assigned to reinforce the Municipal Police of the international zone in Shanghai, China. [CPC]
14 Aug 1937
  • After capturing Bilbao the Spanish Nationalist forces in the north of Spain switched their offensive towards Santander. The Nationalists, who were led by General Fidel Dávila, advanced westward through the Cantabrian Mountains. Spanish Republican resistance was weak, despite the large number of troops General Mariano Gamir Ulibarri had under his command, because of poor training and a shortage of weapons. [Main Article | AC]
  • Henley was commissioned into service. [Main Article | CPC]
China
  • 18 Type 96 G3M bombers of the Japanese Kanoya Air Group took off from the Matsuyama Airfield (now Songshan Airport) in Taihoku (now Taipei), Taiwan to bomb Jianqiao Airfield at Hangzhou in Zhejiang Province and Guangde Airfield in Anhui Province in China. Fighters of the Chinese 4th Pursuit Group, led by Captain Gao Zhihang, rose to intercept from Jianqiao and shot down 3 bombers without any losses. Cheng Xiaoyu's 22nd Squadron, also of the Chinese 4th Pursuit Group, rose to meet the other group attacking Guangde Airfield, shooting down another. Anti-aircraft crews claimed a further two bombers destroyed. Air Force Day was declared as an instrument to raise morale. [CPC]
  • The Manchukuo Film Association Limited was established in the Japanese-sponsored puppet state of Manchukuo; it was a joint-venture between the government of Manchukuo and the South Manchurian Railway Company. [CPC]
Photo(s) dated 14 Aug 1937
Damaged shops at Nanjing Road in Shanghai, China after Japanese aerial bombing, 14 Aug 1937
15 Aug 1937
  • A new political police force, the SIM (Servicio Investigacion Militar), was established in Republican Spain. It was controlled by the Communists and contained many Russian advisers. [AC]
  • Japanese Army General Iwane Matsui, en route from Tokyo, Japan for China where he would pick up his newly assigned command over the Shanghai Expeditionary Force, he noted to War Minister Hajime Sugiyama that "[t]here is no solution exception to break the power of Chiang Kaishek by capturing Nanjing. That is what I must do." [Main Article | CPC]
  • In the afternoon, 8 P-26 fighters, 5 Gladiator fighters, and 13 Hawk II and Hawk III fighters of Chinese 8th, 17th, 28th, and 34th Squadrons intercepted a group of 20 Japanese G3M bombers en route to attack Nanjing, China; 4 bombers were destroyed and 6 bombers were damaged. [CPC]
  • The Japanese government announced its intention to eliminate anti-Japanese movements within Chinese borders; the utter disregard for Chinese sovereignty in this announcement made it an unofficial declaration of war to the Chinese. [CPC]
China
  • Rear Admiral Masakichi Okuma and his Japanese Navy Destroyer Squadron 5 were placed in charge of evacuating Japanese residents in Southern China to Taiwan. [CPC]
  • Japanese bombers conducted a raid on the Chinese capital city of Nanjing; it was the very first time this city was subjected to aerial bombing. [Main Article | CPC]
  • Chiang Kaishek officially assumed the role of the commander-in-chief of the Chinese military for the duration of the Second Sino-Japanese War and issued orders to reorganize Chinese Communist forces under Nationalist command. [Main Article | CPC]
Japan
  • Iwane Matsui was recalled from the retirement list. [Main Article | CPC]
Photo(s) dated 15 Aug 1937
Smoke above Zhabei district of Shanghai during battle, Aug-Sep 1937
16 Aug 1937
  • The American Adviser on Political Relations sent a memo to the US Secretary of State Cordell Hull requesting further reinforcements for the US 4th Marine Regiment in Shanghai, China. [CPC]
  • Mugford was commissioned into service. [Main Article | CPC]
China
  • 11 Japanese G3M bombers attacked a Chinese airfield near Nanjing, China. Fighters of Chinese 17th and 28th Pursuit Squadrons shot down 3 Japanese bombers; the Chinese lost 3 fighters in the engagement. [CPC]
  • Japanese aircraft attacked Chinese positions at Jiangyin, Jiangsu Province, China. [Main Article | CPC]
17 Aug 1937

China
  • Japanese light tanks halted a Chinese counter attack at Shanghai, China. Meanwhile, the first group of American evacuees departed from the international zone of Shanghai. [Main Article | CPC]
  • Chinese Hawk III fighters flew 17 sorties against incoming Japanese bombers targeting Chinese airfields in the Shanghai-Nanjing area; 1 Japanese bomber and 2 Chinese fighters were lost. [CPC]
Japan
  • The Japanese government officially abandoned its previous decision not to escalate the situation in China. [CPC]
18 Aug 1937

China
  • Japanese Army General Masakazu Kawabe entered Beiping, China and proclaimed himself the military governor of the city. [Main Article | CPC]
Photo(s) dated 18 Aug 1937
Yura off Shanghai, China, 18 Aug 1937, photo 1 of 2Yura off Shanghai, China, 18 Aug 1937, photo 2 of 2
19 Aug 1937

China
  • A rifle company of two officers and 102 enlisted men arrived in Shanghai, China from Cavite, Philippine Islands to reinforce the US 4th Marine Regiment. [CPC]
20 Aug 1937 China
  • China was divided into five war areas for the purpose of organizing defense. [CPC]
Photo(s) dated 20 Aug 1937
Chinese soldier in Shanghai, China, 1937
22 Aug 1937

China
  • In the morning, 12 Japanese Type 92 attack aircraft, escorted by 6 Type 95 fighters, attacked Jiangyin, Jiangsu Province, China, targeting light cruisers Pinghai and Ninghai. Pinghai suffered a hit in the forward half of the Pinghai the starboard side, causing light flooding and injuring commanding officer Captain Gao Xianshen in the waist; Ninghai also suffered one hit. At noon, another wave of Japanese bombers arrived from the west and dropped bombs from altitude, causing minor damage to Pinghai. In the afternoon, 7 carrier aircraft from Kaga attacked the Chinese fleet. At 1630 hours, 9 Japanese aircraft attacked Ninghai, causing no damage. At 1730 hours, 6 Type 92 attack aircraft and 3 Type 95 fighters of the Japanese 12th Air Fleet attacked Pinghai, causing further damage with four bomb hits and near misses. On this day, Pinghai suffered 5 killed, 23 wounded; she also claimed 5 aircraft shot down. Chiense training cruiser Yingrui was also damaged by Japanese aircraft on this day. [Main Article | CPC]
  • The main force of the Chinese Communist Party was organized under the Chinese Army as the 8th Route Army. [CPC]
23 Aug 1937
  • Near Santander, the Basque forces in the Spanish Republican army surrendered to General Ettore Bastico, and seeing that further resistance was impossible, Ulibarri abandoned his remaining troops and flew to safety in France. This left Santander, the objective of the Spanish Nationalist offensive, nearly defenseless. [Main Article | AC]
China
  • Mutsu arrived at Shanghai, China and disembarked 2,000 troops of the Japanese Army 11th Division. [Main Article | Tabular Record of Movement | CPC]
  • Japanese reconnaissance aircraft scouted Jiangyin, Jiangsu Province, China at 1100 hours. At 1400 hours, 9 Type 92 attack aircraft and 3 Type 95 fighters of the Japanese 12th Air Fleet attacked Jiangyin with the purpose of drawing fire from the defenses; shortly after, 12 Type 94 bombers, 14 Type 96 bombers, and 8 carrier aircraft from Kaga attacked the primary target Chinese light cruiser Pinghai, scoring three bomb hits and sinking the ship in shallow waters. At 1400 hours, 38 Japanese aircraft attacked Ninghai from three directions, hitting the light cruiser three times, wounding Captain Chen Hongtai in the legs. Chen attempted to move Ninghai up river away from the action, but she gave in to her wounds near Bawei harbor, sinking by the stern in shallow waters. Ninghai suffered 62 casualties on this day, but claimed 4 Japanese aircraft shot down. [Main Article | CPC]
24 Aug 1937
  • Spanish General Sebastián Pozas’ Republican Army of the East commenced an offensive into Aragon from Catalonia with the object of capturing Saragossa. The Spanish Nationalist forces of General Miguel Ponte were pushed back in the north and south of the River Ebro over the course of the next month, but the Republicans were unable to dislodge them from the area around Saragossa, nor to capture Huesca (in the north) or Tereul (in the south). By the end of Sep 1937 the offensive had ceased to have any impetus and effectively grounded to a halt. [Main Article | AC]
China
  • Mutsu provided naval gunfire support off Shanghai, China. [Main Article | Tabular Record of Movement | CPC]
  • Three Chinese transports and eight captured Japanese transports were sunk at the mouth of the Yangtze River at Jiangyin, Jiangsu Province, China, adding more obstacles to prevent Japanese navigation. [Main Article | CPC]
25 Aug 1937
  • The Spanish Nationalists captured Santander, Spain almost unopposed. [Main Article | AC]
China
  • Chinese light cruisers Haiqi, Hairong, Haichen, and Haichou were sunk at the mouth of the Yangtze River at Jiangyin, Jiangsu Province, China, adding more obstacles to prevent Japanese navigation. Later in the day, 16 Japanese carrier aircraft from Kaga attacked and sank Chinese light cruiser Yixian; two Japanese aircraft were lost in the attack. [Main Article | CPC]
  • Hairong was scuttled in the Yangtze River at Jiangyin, Jiangsu Province, China to block Japanese movement up river. [Main Article | CPC]
  • Haichou was scuttled in the Yangtze River at Jiangyin, Jiangsu Province, China to block Japanese movement up river. [Main Article | CPC]
  • Haichen was scuttled in the Yangtze River at Jiangyin, Jiangsu Province, China to block Japanese movement up river. [Main Article | CPC]
26 Aug 1937
  • Japanese aircraft sank Chinese vessel Jiaori. [CPC]
China
  • Japanese aircraft attacked a vehicle carrying the ambassador of United Kingdom during an air raid on Shanghai, China. [Main Article | CPC]
  • A second rifle company of two officers and 102 enlisted men arrived in Shanghai, China from Cavite, Philippine Islands to reinforce the US 4th Marine Regiment; the first company of identical strength had arrived 7 days prior. [CPC]
27 Aug 1937
  • USS S-31 arrived at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States. [Main Article | CPC]
28 Aug 1937

China
  • Japanese aircraft damaged Chinese gunboat Chuyou at Jiangyin, Jiangsu Province, China. [Main Article | CPC]
United States
  • The US 2nd Marine Brigade headquarters and the US 6th Marine Regiment departed San Diego, California, United States for Shanghai, China. [CPC]
Photo(s) dated 28 Aug 1937
Orphaned Chinese baby crying in the South Station in Shanghai, China, 28 Aug 1937
29 Aug 1937

China
  • Japanese aircraft damaged Chinese gunboat Chuyou at Jiangyin, Jiangsu Province, China. [Main Article | CPC]
31 Aug 1937
  • Italian submarine Iride attacked British destroyer HMS Havock off Spain, and HMS Havock responded with depth charges; neither incurred any damage. [Main Article | CPC]
China
  • The Japanese Navy Kanoya Air Group, based in Taiwan, launched 9 Type 96 G3M2 bombers to attack Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, China. 8 Hawk III fighters of Chinese 29th Independent Pursuit Squadron were scrambled to intercept; one G3M bomber was shot down, two Hawk III fighters were damaged. [Main Article | CPC]
  • The last Japanese merchant ship departed Qingdao, Shandong Province, China, escorted by submarine tender Jingei. [CPC]
1 Sep 1937
  • With the capture of Bilbao and Santander the only remaining Spanish Republican stronghold in the north of Spain was Gijón and its surrounding area. The Spanish Nationalists, led by Generals Antonio Aranda and José Solchaga, launched an offensive through the mountains of Leon and along the coast from the east to capture Gijón. General Aranda's forces, however, were unable to break through the mountain passes, which were strongly held by Asturian troops, until a Navarrese force, under General Solchaga's command, captured the village of Infiesto a month later, thus outflanked the mountain defences and forced the Asturians into a retreat. [Main Article | AC]
China
  • In China, under the command of Itagaki Seishiro, Japanese 5th Division and 11th Mixed Brigade marched from Beiping toward Chahar and Shanxi Provinces. [Main Article | CPC]
  • Light carrier Hosho departed Shanghai, China. [Main Article | Tabular Record of Movement | CPC]
France
  • Capitaine de vaisseau Auphan was named the commanding officer of Jeanne d'Arc. [Main Article | CPC]
United Kingdom
  • No. 5 Group, RAF Bomber Command was established under the command of Air Vice-Marshal Arthur Travis with its headquarters at RAF Mildenhall in Suffolk, England, United Kingdom. [AC]
2 Sep 1937
  • Craven was commissioned into service. [Main Article | CPC]
  • The F4F Wildcat fighter took its first flight. [Main Article | CPC]
United States
3 Sep 1937
  • The first British-built Bren gun fired in testing. [Main Article | CPC]
4 Sep 1937
  • USS Pollack arrived at Portsmouth Navy Yard, Kittery, Maine, United States, ending her shakedown cruise in the Caribbean Sea. [Main Article | CPC]
China
  • Japanese diplomatic personnel previously stationed in Nanjing, China arrived in Qingdao, Shandong Province, China by train for evacuation to Japan. [CPC]
5 Sep 1937 China
  • Deng Xihou gave a patriotic speech in Chengdu, Sichuan, China before leading troops to eastern China to engage the Japanese. [Main Article | CPC]
Japan
8 Sep 1937

Japan
10 Sep 1937

Japan Photo(s) dated 10 Sep 1937
Field Marshal Blomberg offering the German Army for Hitler
11 Sep 1937

China
  • Following the advice of German advisor to China Falkenhausen, Chinese troops dug in at Luodian near Shanghai to defend against a Japanese offensive. The 300,000 Chinese infantry troops would hold on to Luodian for four days against attacks by 100,000 Japanese troops with overwhelming firepower. [Main Article | CPC]
12 Sep 1937

China
  • China requested League of Nations intervention with Japanese invasion. [CPC]
13 Sep 1937
  • Japanese troops captured Datong, Shanxi, China and its large supply of coal. Chinese troops fell back to Yanmenguan, Niangziguan, and Pingxingguan gates of the Great Wall. [Main Article | CPC]
14 Sep 1937
  • Japanese cruiser Yubari and two destroyers engaged with Chinese cruiser Zhaohe and sloop Haizhou off the Pearl River Delta off Guangdong, China. Zhaohe and Haizhou were both damaged, and the captain of Zhaohe would later be shot for ordering a retreat from this engagement. [Main Article | Tabular Record of Movement | CPC]
15 Sep 1937

China
  • Japanese troops took the town of Luodian near Shanghai after four days of attacks. [Main Article | CPC]
19 Sep 1937

China
  • The 2nd Marine Brigade headquarters and the US 6th Marine Regiment arrived in Shanghai, China. The US Marine Corps presence in Shanghai was now 2,536-strong. [CPC]
20 Sep 1937

Photo(s) dated 20 Sep 1937
Machine gun crew of Chinese 88th Division covering an infantry advance, Shanghai, China, Sep-Oct 1937; note Germany-supplied helmetsSoldier of Chinese 88th Division guarding a position in Shanghai, China, Sep-Oct 1937
21 Sep 1937

China
  • Prince Naruhiko ordered the Japanese Army Air Service to begin a renewed air offensive against the Chinese capital of Nanjing. [Main Article | CPC]
  • Light carrier Hosho arrived off Guangzhou, Guangdong, China and launched aircraft to attack Tienho and Paiyun airfields, claiming 6 kills. 5 of the fighters launched ran out of fuel and were lost in the sea; all crew members were rescued. [Main Article | Tabular Record of Movement | CPC]
  • Ryujo attacked Guangzhou, Guangdong, China with 9 aircraft in the afternoon; they claimed to have shot down five of the defending Chinese Hawk III fighters. [Main Article | Tabular Record of Movement | CPC]
22 Sep 1937

China
  • The Chinese Nationalist Party issued a declaration of cooperation with the Communist Party in the war against Japan. [CPC]
23 Sep 1937
  • Chiang Kaishek officially announced a united front between Nationalist Party and Communist Party forces against Japan. [Main Article | CPC]
25 Sep 1937
  • Battle of Pingxingguan: Communist Chinese forces successfully ambushed Japanese forces at this gate of the Great Wall of China. [Main Article | CPC]
China
  • Japanese bombers flew 95 sorties over Nanjing, China between 0930 and 1630 hours, dropping 500 bombs which caused more than 600 mostly civilian casualties. The National Central Hospital, which had a large red cross painted on the roof, was also damaged by bombs. [Main Article | CPC]
Photo(s) dated 25 Sep 1937
Mussolini and Hitler in an open-top Mercedes-Benz limousine, Berlin, Germany, late Sep 1937Communist machine gun crew at the Battle of Pingxingguan, Shanxi Province, China, 25 Sep 1937
27 Sep 1937

Photo(s) dated 27 Sep 1937
5-inch/38 caliber dual-purpose gun on Yorktown
28 Sep 1937

China
  • Zhaohe was sunk by Japanese aircraft off Guangdong Province, China. [Main Article | CPC]
Photo(s) dated 28 Sep 1937
Goebbels speaking during Mussolini
29 Sep 1937
  • Japanese aircraft sank Chinese gunboat Chuyou. [CPC]
Photo(s) dated 29 Sep 1937
Finnish Army Lieutenant Colonel Aaro Pajari at his desk in Finland, 29 Sep 1937
30 Sep 1937
  • Yorktown (Yorktown-class) was commissioned into service. [Main Article | CPC]
China
  • Japanese aircraft bombarded Chinese coastal battery positions overlooking the Pearl River Delta in Guangdong Province, China. [Main Article | CPC]
Photo(s) dated 30 Sep 1937
Commissioning ceremony of USS Yorktown, Naval Operating Base, Norfolk, Virginia, United States, 30 Sep 1937
1 Oct 1937
  • Kapitän zur See Theodor Burchardi took command of cruiser Köln. [Main Article | CPC]
  • Erwin Rommel was promoted to the rank of Oberst. [Main Article | CPC]
  • Largo Caballero was removed from the leadership of the UGT (Union General de Trabajadores, or "Socialist Trades Union") in Spain. [AC]
Germany
  • Maximilian von Weichs was made the commanding officer of German 13th Corps. [Main Article | CPC]
Photo(s) dated 1 Oct 1937
Henley at the Mare Island Navy Yard, California, United States, 1 Oct 1937, photo 1 of 2Henley at the Mare Island Navy Yard, California, United States, 1 Oct 1937, photo 2 of 2
2 Oct 1937

China
  • Japanese 2nd Brigade of the Chahar Expeditionary Force attacked Gouxian, Shanxi, China, defended by Chinese 19th Army. [Main Article | CPC]
  • Japanese aircraft sank Chinese gunboat Chuyou at Jiangyin, Jiangsu Province, China. [Main Article | CPC]
3 Oct 1937
  • Japanese aircraft sank Chinese torpedo boat Hue. [CPC]
China
4 Oct 1937

China
  • After a 10-day rest period, the US 4th Marine Regiment returned to police duties in the international zone in Shanghai, China. [CPC]
  • Jiang Dingwen was named the commanding officer of the Chinese 4th Army. [Main Article | CPC]
Germany
  • Hitler issued a comprehensive law for "the reconstruction of German cities", with priority being given to the rebuilding of Berlin. [Main Article | AC]
Japan Photo(s) dated 4 Oct 1937
French Ambassador André François-Poncet speaking with German Luftwaffe General Erhard Milch, Paris, France, 4 Oct 1937
5 Oct 1937

United States
  • Franklin Roosevelt called for a "quarantine" of aggressor nations in a speech at Chicago, Illinois, United States. [Main Article | CPC]
Photo(s) dated 5 Oct 1937
Henley in San Pablo Bay, near the Mare Island Navy Yard, California, United States, 5 Oct 1937, photo 3 of 3Henley in San Pablo Bay, near the Mare Island Navy Yard, California, United States, 5 Oct 1937, photo 1 of 3Henley in San Pablo Bay, near the Mare Island Navy Yard, California, United States, 5 Oct 1937, photo 2 of 3
7 Oct 1937

China
10 Oct 1937

France
  • Marseillaise was commissioned into service. [Main Article | CPC]
12 Oct 1937
  • Japanese troops captured Gouxian, Shanxi, China. [Main Article | CPC]
United Kingdom
  • Hurricane prototype fighter K5083 took its final flight; on the same day, the first production Hurricane fighter took its first flight at Brooklands near Weybridge, Surrey, England, United Kingdom. [Main Article | CPC]
13 Oct 1937
  • Germany, in a note to Brussels, guaranteed the inviolability and integrity of Belgium. [CPC]
  • 50,000 Japanese troops marched for Xinkou, Shanxi, China, supported by 30 aircraft, 40 pieces of artillery, and 50 light tanks and tankettes. [Main Article | CPC]
14 Oct 1937
  • Ralph Talbot was commissioned into service. [Main Article | CPC]
16 Oct 1937
  • Helm was commissioned into service. [Main Article | CPC]
  • Chinese troops counterattacked the Japanese at Xinkou, Shanxi, China, slowing Japanese momentum. [Main Article | CPC]
  • The first flight of the prototype Short Sunderland flying boat took place. [Main Article | AC]
17 Oct 1937 China
  • The Guanxi Army arrived in Shanghai, China to reinforce the Chinese forces. [Main Article | CPC]
19 Oct 1937
  • 769th Regiment of Chinese 120th Division attacked the Yangmingbao airfield in Shanxi, China, destroying 24 aircraft on the ground. [Main Article | CPC]
20 Oct 1937
  • The Spanish Republican submarine C6 was scuttled at Gijón, Spain after suffering damage during a Spanish Nationalist air attack. [Main Article | AC]
Japan
  • Masafumi Arima was transferred from Cruiser Division 10 to Cruiser Division 14. [Main Article | CPC]
Photo(s) dated 20 Oct 1937
Troops of Japanese 18th Infantry Regiment at Dachang near Shanghai, China, Oct 1937
21 Oct 1937
  • Spanish Republican-held stronghold of Gijón surrendered, allowing the whole northern coast of Spain to pass into Nationalist control. In Gijón harbor, the Spanish Republican destroyer Ciscar was sunk Nationalist aircraft. [Main Article | AC]
22 Oct 1937

China
23 Oct 1937

China
  • Yingrui was sunk by Japanese carrier aircraft from Kaga off Jiangyin, Jiangsu Province, China; 15 were killed, 40 were wounded. [Main Article | CPC]
United States
  • Submarine Skipjack was launched at Groton, Connecticut, United States, sponsored by Miss Frances Cuthbert Van Keuren. [Main Article | Facility | CPC]
24 Oct 1937

China
25 Oct 1937

Turkey
  • President Mustafa Kemal Atatürk of Turkey, looking for more liberal economic policies, appointed Cemal Bayar as Prime Minister. [AC]
Photo(s) dated 25 Oct 1937
Mugford off Boston, Massachusetts, United States, 25 Oct 1937
26 Oct 1937
  • Japanese commando battalions broke through Chinese lines and pushed the defenders back along the Shijiazhuang-Taiyuan Railway in Shanxi, China. [Main Article | CPC]
China
  • At 2200 hours, the Chinese 524th Regiment withdrew from Shanghai North Railway Station into the six-story Sihang Warehouse in Shanghai, China. [Main Article | CPC]
27 Oct 1937
  • Republican forces in Spain set fire to their fuel reserves in Gijon, Spain to avoid Nationalist capture. [Main Article | CPC]
  • Vincenzo Gioberti was commissioned into service. [Main Article | CPC]
China
  • After taking Shanghai North Railway Station in the morning, Japanese troops moved on to launched a small scale attack the Sihang Warehouse on the north bank of the Suzhou River in Shanghai to test Chinese defenses. The Japanese avoided using mortars and other weapons of greater firepower, including aerial bombardment, to avoid hitting the international zone just across the river. [Main Article | CPC]
United States
  • The keel of US battleship USS North Carolina (BB-55) was laid down at New York Navy Yard in Brooklyn, New York, United States. [Main Article | AC]
Photo(s) dated 27 Oct 1937
Norwegian Foreign Minister Halvdan Koht and US Secretary of State Cordell Hull, State Department, Washington DC, United States, 27 Oct 1937Chinese soldiers on the roof of Sihang Warehouse, Shanghai, China, late Oct 1937West wall of Sihang Warehouse, Shanghai, China, late Oct or early Nov 1937Bombed out shell of what used to be the Shanghai North Railway Station, late Oct 1937
28 Oct 1937

China
  • Japanese troops attacked the Sihang Warehouse in Shanghai, China with light field guns. In the evening, trucks loaded with donated supplies from Shanghai residents reached the warehouse; Japanese snipers killed three Chinese soldiers while they were unloading the trucks. [Main Article | CPC]
29 Oct 1937

China
  • A 12-foot-wide Chinese flag was raised atop the Sihang Warehouse in Shanghai, China, which was a great morale booster for the defenders fortified inside the building. Meanwhile, western officials in the international zone in Shanghai appealed to Chiang Kaishek to order the defenders in the Sihang Warehouse to withdraw, while negotiating for a short ceasefire agreement from the Japanese so that the withdraw would be conducted in peace. [Main Article | CPC]
Photo(s) dated 29 Oct 1937
Two Japanese soldiers helping a wounded comrade off the battlefield near Suzhou Creek, Shanghai, China, late Oct 1937
30 Oct 1937

China
  • The Chinese coastal battery at Wushan, Jiangsu Province, China sank two Japanese Navy vessels. [Main Article | CPC]
Photo(s) dated 30 Oct 1937
Sihang warehouse, Shanghai, China, late-Oct 1937Carrier USS Yorktown anchored at Hampton Roads, Virginia, United States, 30 Oct 1937
31 Oct 1937 China
  • At midnight, the remaining 376 Chinese officers and men in the Sihang Warehouse in Shanghai, China withdrew from the building into the international zone. The evacuation was completed by 0200 hours on 1 Nov 1937. [Main Article | CPC]
1 Nov 1937
  • Hugo Sperrle was promoted to the rank of General der Flieger. [Main Article | CPC]
  • Giosuè Carducci was commissioned into service. [Main Article | CPC]
China
  • The Sihang Warehouse in Shanghai, stubbornly defended by the Chinese for four days, was evacuated between 0000 and 0200 hours. The 376 Chinese officers and men were allowed to evacuate into the international zone across the southern shore of the Suzhou River but were kept imprisoned until the outbreak of the Pacific War in 1941. [Main Article | CPC]
4 Nov 1937

Japan
5 Nov 1937
  • 35,000 Republican supporters were massacred in Piedrafita de Babia, Spain. [Main Article | CPC]
China
  • Japanese 10th Army landed at Jinshanwei in the south of Shanghai, China in an attempt to surround the city. [Main Article | CPC]
Germany
  • Adolf Hitler first announced his plans for European expansion at the Hossbach Conference in Germany. [Main Article | TH]
Photo(s) dated 5 Nov 1937
Danzig Senate President Greiser and his wife at a ball, 5 Nov 1937
6 Nov 1937
  • Italy joined the Anti-Comintern Pact. [Main Article | CPC]
7 Nov 1937

China
  • The Japanese Army combined the Shanghai Expeditionary Force and the Japanese 10th Army to form the new Central China Area Army. The new army was placed under the command of Iwane Matsui. [Main Article | CPC]
8 Nov 1937

China
  • Chinese troops began to retreat from Shanghai, China. [Main Article | CPC]
9 Nov 1937

China
  • Japanese troops began the occupation of Shanghai, China. [Main Article | CPC]
10 Nov 1937
  • A document sent from the German Foreign Office to Adolf Hitler revealed that German should test British sentiments toward Germany by demanding territory concessions. [CPC]
Germany
  • The Hossbach Memorandum was completed, which outlined Adolf Hitler's plans for German autarchy and future expansion. [Main Article | CPC]
11 Nov 1937
  • Chinese troops at Xinkou, Shanxi, China abandoned the city and fell back toward Taiyuan. [Main Article | CPC]
China
  • The Japanese army began to advance on Nanjing, China. [Main Article | CPC]
15 Nov 1937
  • Chen Changjie was promoted to the rank of lieutenant general. [Main Article | CPC]
  • Chuichi Nagumo was named the commandant of the mine warfare school. [Main Article | CPC]
  • Nobutake Kondo was promoted to the rank of vice admiral. [Main Article | CPC]
France
  • Montcalm was commissioned into service. [Main Article | CPC]
  • Cruiser Georges Leygues was commissioned into service. [Main Article | CPC]
16 Nov 1937

China
  • Chiang Kaishek ordered Chinese government ministries and agencies to depart from the capital city of Nanjing within the next three to four days. [Main Article | CPC]
17 Nov 1937

China
  • Jiang Dingwen was named the director of the military commission of Xi'an, China. [Main Article | CPC]
18 Nov 1937
  • Birmingham was commissioned into service. [Main Article | CPC]
19 Nov 1937
  • Lord Halifax met Adolf Hitler at Berchtesgaden in southern Germany; he failed to achieve any official agreements with the German leader, and gave Hitler the confidence that the current British government would be likely to concede to future German demands. Upon his return, Halifax reported that Hitler did not appear to be pursuing war. [Main Article | CPC]
China
  • The Wufu defensive line between Shanghai and Nanjing in China was overrun by Japanese troops. to the rear, Lieutenant General Shun Tada ordered Lieutenant General Heisuke Yanagawa to stop the Japanese 10th Army's advance toward Nanjing, but Yanagawa did not comply with the order. [Main Article | CPC]
  • Japanese troops captured Suzhou, Jiangsu Province, China; the civilians of the city suffered through days of massacre and rape. [CPC]
20 Nov 1937

China
  • The order for Chinese government ministries to evacuate the capital city of Nanjing to Hankou, originally ordered by Chiang Kaishek on 16 Nov 1937, was publicly announced at 1200 hours. [Main Article | CPC]
21 Nov 1937

Japan
22 Nov 1937

China
  • The Japanese Central China Area Army requested Tokyo the permission to assault Nanjing, China. [Main Article | CPC]
24 Nov 1937

China
  • Kaga arrived off Guangdong Province, China and began launching aircraft against Chinese positions near Guangzhou. [Main Article | Tabular Record of Movement | CPC]
  • River gunboat USS Guam arrived at Hankou, Hubei Province, China to protect American interests in the temporary Chinese capital. [CPC]
25 Nov 1937
  • Błyskawica was commissioned into service. [Main Article | CPC]
China
  • From Nanjing, China, German businessman John Rabe sent a message to Adolf Hitler, appealing for the German leader to voice concern over the atrocities committed by the Japanese in China. [Main Article | CPC]
Photo(s) dated 25 Nov 1937
Goebbels and filmmaker Leni Riefenstahl, Germany, 25 Nov 1937
26 Nov 1937

China
  • The Xicheng defensive line between Shanghai and Nanjing in China was overrun by Japanese troops. [Main Article | CPC]
27 Nov 1937

China
  • During a press conference, Tang Shengzhi, the Commander-in-Chief of all forces in Nanjing, China, advised foreign residents in Nanjing to depart but stressed that his troops would defend the city against the impending Japanese attack. [Main Article | CPC]
  • Dong Zhao was named the commander of anti-air defenses of the city of Xi'an, China. [Main Article | CPC]
Photo(s) dated 27 Nov 1937
Lieutenant Colonel Osterkamp taking commanding of a garrison at Werneuchen, Brandenburg, Germany, 27 Nov 1937
29 Nov 1937
  • USS Pollack departed Portsmouth Navy Yard, Kittery, Maine, United States. [Main Article | CPC]
China
  • Kaga departed waters south of Guangdong Province, China; some of her aircraft were left behind to operate from airfields in southern China. [Main Article | Tabular Record of Movement | CPC]
United States
  • USS Permit departed Portsmouth, New Hampshire, United States. [Main Article | CPC]
Photo(s) dated 29 Nov 1937
Cummings underway, 29 Nov 1937
30 Nov 1937
  • The Spanish Republican government moved from Valencia to Barcelona. [Main Article | AC]
1 Dec 1937
  • Zengo Yoshida was named the commander-in-chief of the Japanese Navy Combined Fleet. [CPC]
  • Hiroaki Abe became the commanding officer of battleship Fuso. [Main Article | CPC]
  • The US 3rd Marine Regiment, a reserve unit, was disbanded. [CPC]
  • Vittorio Alfieri was commissioned into service. [Main Article | CPC]
  • Light carrier Hosho was placed in reserve. [Main Article | Tabular Record of Movement | CPC]
China
  • The Imperial General Headquarters in Tokyo, Japan ordered the Japanese Central China Area Army to advance toward Nanjing, China. On the same day, several top Chinese cabinet level advisers departed from the capital. [Main Article | CPC]
  • Vice Admiral Shintaro Hashimoto was named the chief of staff of Vice Admiral Masaichi Maeda (Ryojun Military Port, northeastern China). [Main Article | CPC]
  • Japanese troops landed near Jiangyin, Jiangsu Province, China. [Main Article | CPC]
Japan
  • Captain Chimaki Kono was named the commanding officer of Naka. [Main Article | Tabular Record of Movement | CPC]
  • Masafumi Arima was promoted to the rank of captain and was named the commanding officer of converted seaplane tender Kamikawa Maru. [Main Article | CPC]
Korea
  • Vice Admiral Jugoro Arichi was named the commanding officer of Chinkai Guard District in southern Korea; Vice Admiral Sadaichi Matsunaga was named the chief of staff. [Main Article | CPC]
Taiwan
  • Vice Admiral Shunzo Mito was named the commanding officer of the Mako naval port at Pescadores islands, Taiwan. [Main Article | CPC]
Photo(s) dated 1 Dec 1937
Portrait of Hans Lammers, 1 Dec 1937, photo 1 of 2Portrait of Hans Lammers, 1 Dec 1937, photo 2 of 2
2 Dec 1937

China
  • Japanese troops captured Jiangyin, Jiangsu Province, China. [Main Article | CPC]
  • The officials of the Nanjing Branch of the Palace Museum of China ordered the treasures stored at the Taoist monastery Chaotian Gong, which had arrived from Beiping and Shanghai in Dec 1936, to be moved westward ahead of the Japanese attack. [Main Article | CPC]
Japan
  • Emperor Showa gave the command of Japanese troops attacking Nanjing, China to his uncle Prince Yasuhiko, the head of princely household Asaka-no-miya. [Main Article | CPC]
3 Dec 1937

China
  • Japanese 16th Division and 9th Division began an attack on Chinese 83rd Corps and 66th Corps east of Nanjing, China. [Main Article | CPC]
  • Japanese troops captured the coastal battery near Jiangyin, Jiangsu Province, China. [Main Article | CPC]
4 Dec 1937
  • Air Vice Marshal Trafford Leigh-Mallory became the commanding officer of the No. 12 Group RAF. [Main Article | CPC]
5 Dec 1937

Japan
  • Japanese Prince Yasuhiko of Asaka departed Tokyo, Japan for the front lines in China. [Main Article | CPC]
6 Dec 1937
  • Lord Gort was made a general, appointed to the Army Council, and appointed the Chief of the Imperial General Staff. [Main Article | CPC]
7 Dec 1937
  • USS S-31 was decommissioned from service and placed in reserve at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States. [Main Article | CPC]
China
  • Chinese President Chiang Kaishek departed Nanjing, China by plane. The civilian administration of the city was left to an International Committee led by John Rabe. Outside the city, several villages were set ablaze by Chinese troops to prevent them from being used by the approaching Japanese troops. Meanwhile, on the Japanese side, General Iwane Matsui ordered the siege of Nanjing, China. [Main Article | CPC]
  • Iwane Matsui suffered a bout of tuberculosis while in China. [Main Article | CPC]
8 Dec 1937
  • Japan established the puppet nation of Mengjiang in the Inner Mongolia region of China. [Main Article | CPC]
China
  • Prince Yasuhiko arrived outside of Nanjing, China. [Main Article | CPC]
  • Chinese Air Force squadrons departed Nanjing, China for airfields to the west, leaving the capital city without fighter defense and with little modern communications equipment. [Main Article | CPC]
9 Dec 1937

China
  • In the morning, Japanese troops reached the outskirts of Nanjing, China. At 1200 hours, Japanese aircraft dropped leaflets into the walled city, urging surrender within 24 hours, with the offered terms expiring at 1200 hours on the following day. Chinese commanding officer Tang Shengzhi publicly rejected the demand, but in private he, urged on by the international community in Nanjing, considered negotiating for a ceasefire; such negotiation would be pending Chiang Kaishek's approval. [Main Article | CPC]
  • Kanichi Kashimura engaged in aerial combat over Nanchang, Jiangxi Province, China. Despite having a third of his port wing shot off by a Chinese fighter, he was able to nurse his aircraft 600 kilometers to the north to safely land at his base near Nanjing, China. [Main Article | CPC]
Photo(s) dated 9 Dec 1937
Japanese troops with a captured German-built Chinese Army Panzer I tank, possibly near Nanjing, China, 9 Dec 1937Japanese pilot Kashimura
10 Dec 1937

China
  • Chiang Kaishek rejected Tang Shengzhi's request to negotiate with the Japanese for an evacuation of Nanjing, China. Having received no response to the ultimatum issued on the previous day that expired at noon, the Japanese began the assault at 1300 hours. General Iwane Matsui's order to attack included the wording "[y]ou are to observe military regulations to the letter, to set an example for the future.... Anyone who loots or starts a fire, even accidentally, will be severely punished." [Main Article | CPC]
Japan
  • Kaga departed Sasebo, Japan. [Main Article | Tabular Record of Movement | CPC]
  • Japanese transport Shinsho Maru disembarked troops of No. 1 Yokosuka Special Naval Landing Force near Nagoya, Japan on an amphibious assault exercise. [CPC]
Panama Canal Zone
11 Dec 1937
  • Italy withdrew from the League of Nations. [CPC]
12 Dec 1937
  • National elections were held in the Soviet Union for the first Supreme Soviet under the recently ratified Stalin Constitution. The turnout reached 98.6% of the electorate. [AC]
China
  • At 0300 hours, General Tang Shengzhi, commanding officer of Chinese forces in Nanjing, China, having learned that Japanese naval vessels were heading up the Yangtze River, ordered his officers to prepare a small group of men to retreat across the river while the bulk would gather for an offensive to break out of the Japanese line. During the day, troops of the Japanese 114th Division wooed 1,500 Chinese troops into surrendering at the southern side of the city wall, promising to spare them their lives; they were all executed by the end of the following day. In the afternoon, Japanese bombers sank the American gunboat USS Panay in Nanjing, China at 1554 hours. At 1700 hours, Tang met with his officers again (several of whom were absent, having fled the city without permission) and was told that the Japanese were advancing faster than anticipated. He decided to increase the size of the Yangtze River evacuation to 5 divisions of troops. Tang would depart via the Yijiang Gate on the northern side of the city at 2100 hours, crossing the river on a small launch. [Main Article | CPC]
  • Kaname Harada saw his first combat action in China. [Main Article | CPC]
Taiwan
  • The Daiton National Park (now Yangmingshan National Park) and the Tsugitaka Taroko National Park were established in northern Taiwan and eastern Taiwan, respectively. [CPC]
Photo(s) dated 12 Dec 1937
Japanese soldier holding the severed head of a Chinese civilian, Nanjing, China, Dec 1937-Jan 1938Japanese troops attacking the Zhonghua Gate of the Nanjing city wall with a field gun, China, 12 Dec 1937Japanese Type 94 tankettes attacking the Zhonghua Gate of the Nanjing city wall, China, 12 Dec 1937
13 Dec 1937

China
  • The Japanese Sabae Regiment occupied the Guanghua Gate in Nanjing, China after two days of heavy fighting. In the afternoon, Chinese forces twice attempted to attack the headquarters of the Shanghai Expeditionary Force at Tangshuizhen, but the Japanese was able to repulse the attacks. Later in the day, Zhongshan Gate and Taiping Gate were captured by the Japanese as well, while Japanese Navy warships began to arrive to provide support. By nightfall, the Chinese capital city was declared as captured. German businessman John Rabe, who was in Nanjing, noted the diary entry on this date "It is not until we tour the city that we learn the extent of destruction. We come across corpses every 100 to 200 yards. The bodies of civilians that I examined had bullet holes in their backs. These people had presumably been fleeing and were shot from behind. The Japanese march through the city in groups of ten to twenty soldiers and loot the shops.... I watched with my own eyes as they looted the café of our German baker Herr Kiessling. Hempel's hotel was broken into as well, as almost every shop on Chung Shang and Taiping Road." On this day, troops of the Japanese 16th Division massacred over 3,000 Chinese people, military and civilian, attempting to flee the combat near Guanjiangan and Jiangli areas of Nanjing. Troops of the Japanese 114th Division captured over 1,000 Chinese during its mop up operations, most of whom would be executed within days. Vessels operated by the 11th Task Force of the Japanese 3rd Fleet fired on Chinese refugees attempting to cross the Yangtze River. [Main Article | CPC]
Photo(s) dated 13 Dec 1937
Japanese soldiers crossing a river near the Nanjing city wall, China, 13 Dec 1937
14 Dec 1937
  • German National Ministry of the Interior provided legal means for the police to commit criminals to concentration camps directly. [Main Article | CPC]
China
  • Japanese 9th Division began to conduct mop up operations in secured areas of Nanjing, China, occupying, among other buildings, the National Central Hospital. Nearby, at Xianhe Gate and Yaohua Gate of the city wall north of Zijin Mountain, 38th Company of the Japanese 16th Division killed 7,200 Chinese people, military and civilian, during mop up operations; those who were able to flee claimed that some sections of the moat were filled with dead bodies. Near Xuanwu Gate, troops of the Japanese 16th Division executed 500 Chinese civilians. Second Lieutenant Nakamura of the 6th Cavalry Company of the Japanese 6th Division executed 300 prisoners of war. As reported by the International Committee later, Japanese troops entered civilian homes in Nanjing and raped or took away women. [Main Article | CPC]
  • Kaga arrived off Guangdong Province, China. [Main Article | Tabular Record of Movement | CPC]
Photo(s) dated 14 Dec 1937
Head of a Chinese man who was decapitated by Japanese placed on a barricade near Nanjing, China, 14 Dec 1937
15 Dec 1937
  • In Spain, in order to pre-empt a Spanish Nationalist attack upon Catalonia, two Spanish Republican armies (led by Generals Hernández Sarabia and Leopoldo Menendez) launched an offensive to capture the city of Teruel, surrounding the city by nightfall. The city's garrison commander Colonel Rey d’Harcourt would hold out in the southern part of the city until early Jan 1938. [Main Article | AC]
China
  • Troops of the 23rd Company of the Japanese 6th Division executed over 1,000 captured Chinese military and civilians and over 400 police personnel (all captured in the city legislature building area where a temporary refugee camp was located) outside of Hanzhong Gate of Nanjing, China; their 2,000 bodies were burned. At Yijiangmen at about 1400 hours, Japanese troops rounded up 300 residents of the Jiang estate, killing them by machine gun fire and buring. On the Yangtze River, gunboats Futami and Seta of the Japanese Navy 3rd Fleet fired on Chinese refugees attempting to cross the river; nearby, Japanese naval personnel began executing many of the 9,000 captives they held. As reported by the International Committee later, "a number Japanese soldiers entered the University of Nanking buildings at Tao Yuen and raped 30 women on the spot, some by six men." [Main Article | CPC]
16 Dec 1937

China
  • Japanese 9th Division killed about 6,500 Chinese people, both military in civilian, in Nanjing, China during two days of mop up operations. 20th Company of the Japanese 16th Division massacred more than 7,000 Chinese east of Zijin Mountain. Chinese troops launched a failed counterattack at Qilin Gate of the city wall; 200 Chinese troops who were captured during the failed counterattack were executed by bayoneting by men of the 38th Company of the Japanese 16th Division. On the shore of the Yangtze River, the Japanese 13th Division began to execute large numbers of the 20,000 Chinese captives it held. As reported by the International Committee later, "seven girls (ages ranged from 16 to 21) were taken away from the Military College"; only five of them were able to return on 18 Dec; some of them reported being raped six or seven times daily by Japanese soldiers. [Main Article | CPC]
Photo(s) dated 16 Dec 1937
Japanese troops rounding up Chinese, Nanjing, China, 16 Dec 1937Chinese women begging Japanese troops to spare the lives of their husbands and sons who were being rounded up on Shanghai Road, Nanjing, China, 16 Dec 1937
17 Dec 1937
  • PB2Y Coronado flying boat took its first flight. [Main Article | CPC]
China
  • At the Sancha Fangsheng Temple and the nearby orphanage in Nanjing, China, Japanese troops massacred 400 to 500 civilians. At a dock on the Yangtze River, Japanese troops massacred over 3,000 prisoners of war, civilian workers of the power plant, and other civilians. German businessman John Rabe, who was in the Chinese capital of Nanjing, noted the diary entry on this date "In one of the houses in the narrow street behind my garden wall, a woman was raped, and then wounded in the neck with a bayonet. I managed to get an ambulance so we can take her to Kulou Hospital.... You hear nothing but rape. If husbands or brothers intervene, they're shot. What you hear and see on all sides is the brutality and bestiality of the Japanese soldiers." [Main Article | CPC]
  • Iwane Matsui entered Nanjing, China with a military parade. [Main Article | CPC]
Photo(s) dated 17 Dec 1937
Japanese General Iwane Matsui marching into Nanjing, China, 17 Dec 1937, photo 1 of 2Japanese troops parading in Nanjing, China, 17 Dec 1937Japanese troops escorting 450 captured Nanjing policemen, China, 17 Dec 1937; most of them would be executed en masse later that day outside the West Gate of the city wallJapanese soldiers purchasing items from Chinese vendors, Nanjing, China, 17 Dec 1937; the Chinese claimed this to be a staged photo for propaganda
See all photos dated 17 Dec 1937
18 Dec 1937

China
  • Japanese troops executed over 300 Chinese people, military and civilian, on a road outside of Nanjing, China by machine gun. As reported by the International Committee later, at 1600 hours on this date, "at No. 18 I Ho Lu, Japanese soldiers wanted a man's cigarette case and when he hesitated, one of the soldier crashed in the side of his head with a bayonet. The man is now at the University Hospital and is not expected to live." [Main Article | CPC]
United States
  • USS Permit arrived at San Diego, California, United States and joined Submarine Squadron 6 of the US Navy. [Main Article | CPC]
Photo(s) dated 18 Dec 1937
Japanese soldiers transporting supplies with a cart at a Nanjing city wall gate, China, Dec 1937; note unburied Chinese remainsJapanese Admiral Kiyoshi Hasegawa, General Iwane Matsui, and Prince Yasuhiko of Asaka at a memorial for fallen Japanese soldiers in Nanjing, China, 18 Dec 1937Japanese Admiral Kiyoshi Hasegawa, General Iwane Matsui, and Prince Yasuhiko of Asaka in Nanjing, China, circa 18 Dec 1937General Iwane Matsui speaking at a memorial for fallen Japanese soldiers in Nanjing, China, 18 Dec 1937
See all photos dated 18 Dec 1937
19 Dec 1937

China
  • Men of the Japanese 13th Division, having executed tends of thousands of refugees and prisoners of war in Nanjing, China by machine gun, bayonet, and fire since 16 Dec 1937, began to burn the remains; the ashes were dumped into the Yangtze River. Reverend James M. McCallum, who was in Nanjing, noted in his diary "Never I have heard or read such brutality. Rape! Rape! Rape! We estimate at least 1,000 cases a night, and many by day.... Women are being carried off every morning, afternoon and evening. The whole Japanese army seems to be free to go and come as it pleases, and to do whatever it pleases." [Main Article | CPC]
United States
  • USS Pollack arrived at San Diego, California, United States. [Main Article | CPC]
Photo(s) dated 19 Dec 1937
Dead Chinese piled on the shore of the Yangtze River, Nanjing, China, Dec 1937Dead Chinese piled on the shore of the Yangtze River near Xiaguan Pier, Nanjing, China, Dec 1937
20 Dec 1937
  • German Great War General Erich Ludendorff dies in Munich, Germany. [AC]
  • Arashio was commissioned into service. [Main Article | CPC]
China
  • The Japanese Domei News Agency reported that life in Nanjing, China, which was recently captured by Japanese troops, was returning to normal, and refugees who had fled the city prior and during the battle were starting to return. [Main Article | CPC]
United Kingdom
  • The British Royal Navy issued the order for the light cruiser to be named HMS Mauritius. [Main Article | CPC]
23 Dec 1937

Photo(s) dated 23 Dec 1937
Joseph Goebbels with daughters Helga and Hilde at a large Christmas party amidst the playing of a patriotic song, 23 Dec 1937
24 Dec 1937
  • The Maachi C.200 Saetta (Lightning) aircraft made its maiden flight in prototype form. Designed by Dr. Mario Castoldi, the C.200 Saetta was the first monoplane fighter with fully-retractable undercarriage and enclosed cockpit to enter service with the Italian Air Force. [Main Article | AC]
25 Dec 1937

United Kingdom
  • The first production Hurricane fighters began to be delivered to No. 111 Squadron RAF at Northolt, Middlesex, England, United Kingdom. [Main Article | CPC]
United States
26 Dec 1937

China
  • Chinese seaplane tender Zhenhai was sunk as a blockship in Qingdao harbor, Shandong Province, China. [CPC]
28 Dec 1937

China
  • The Japanese occupation forces in Nanjing, China began registering men. [Main Article | CPC]
29 Dec 1937
  • Spanish General Franco ordered Generals José Varela and Antonio Aranda to mount a counter-attack to relieve the defenders at Teruel, who were surrounded by Spanish Republican forces. Appalling winter weather, however, hampered their advance, although this move nearly placed the Republicans in a siege situation themselves. [Main Article | AC]
  • Soryu was commissioned into service. [Main Article | Tabular Record of Movement | CPC]
31 Dec 1937
  • Douglas MacArthur retired from the US Army, but remained Philippine President Manuel Quezon's advisor as a civilian. [Main Article | CPC]
  • Filipp Golikov was promoted to the rank of corps commander. [Main Article | CPC]
China
  • The Japanese occupation forces in Nanjing, China began registering women. [Main Article | CPC]

Timeline Section Founder: Thomas Houlihan
Contributors: Alan Chanter, C. Peter Chen, Thomas Houlihan, David Stubblebine
Special Thanks: Rory Curtis




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