1910 | 1911 | 1912 | 1913 | 1914 | 1915 | 1916 | 1917 | 1918 | 1919
1920 | 1921 | 1922 | 1923 | 1924 | 1925 | 1926 | 1927 | 1928 | 1929
1930 | 1931 | 1932 | 1933 | 1934 | 1935 | 1936 | 1937 | 1938 | 1939
1940 | 1941 | 1942 | 1943 | 1944 | 1945 | 1946 | 1947 | 1948 | 1949

1 Jan 1938
  • Cruiser Köln began two months of repairs at Kiel, Germany. [Main Article | CPC]
  • Lord Gort was made a Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath. [Main Article | CPC]
  • George Giffard was made a Companion of the Order of the Bath. [Main Article | CPC]
China
  • Japanese Army General Iwane Matsui reportedly told a Japanese diplomat "[m]y men have done something very wrong and extremely regrettable" regarding the atrocities committed in Nanjing, China. [Main Article | CPC]
  • Chen Shaokuan was named the supreme commander of the Chinese Navy. [Main Article | CPC]
United Kingdom
  • Although Hurricane fighters had been arriving for the past week, this date was the official date that No. 111 Squadron RAF (based at RAF Northolt, Middlesex, England, United Kingdom) converted to operate these newly developed fighters. [Main Article | CPC]
Photo(s) dated 1 Jan 1938
A Japanese newspaper reporting a killing contest held by the Japanese Army in Nanjing
2 Jan 1938

Photo(s) dated 2 Jan 1938
Starboard view of HMAS Stuart, off Sydney, Australia, 2 Jan 1938; note black band around her forefunnel, indicating her as flotilla leader
6 Jan 1938

Italy
  • Submarine Scirè was launched at La Spezia, Italy. [Main Article | CPC]
8 Jan 1938
  • Short on supplies, Spanish Colonel Rey d’Harcourt surrendered Teruel to Spanish Republican forces. [Main Article | AC]
  • Filipp Golikov was promtoed to the rank of lieutenant general. [Main Article | CPC]
China
  • A Japanese-controlled newspaper in China published that the residents of Nanjing, China welcomed Chinese troops with joy, and the Japanese Army offered food and other aid to those in need. [Main Article | CPC]
  • Japanese seaplane tender Kinugasa Maru departed Ryojun (Lushunkou), northeastern China with troops aboard. [Main Article | CPC]
Photo(s) dated 8 Jan 1938
Emperor Showa (Hirohito) reviewing troops of the Japanese Army on his horse Shirayuki, 8 Jan 1938
9 Jan 1938

China
  • USS Marblehead departed Qingdao, Shandong Province, China for Yantai to the southwest. [CPC]
  • HMS Suffolk departed Qingdao, Shandong Province, China for the British colony of Weihaiwei to the east. [CPC]
10 Jan 1938

China
  • Japanese Special Naval Landing Force troops landed in and near Qingdao, Shandong Province, China to reinforce the Japanese Army and Navy personnel already in the city. [CPC]
12 Jan 1938
  • Werner von Blomberg married Erna Gruhn, who was previously his stenographer. [Main Article | CPC]
  • The Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union met for the first time [CPC]
China
  • Chen Cheng was named the head of the political bureau of the Nationalist military and the commander-in-chief of the Wuhan garrison in Hubei, China. [Main Article | CPC]
Russia
  • Andrey Andreyev was appointed Chairman of the Soviet of the Union, one of the two elected chambers of the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union, a post he would hold throughout WWII. [AC]
13 Jan 1938
  • US Navy and US Marine Corps began the Fleet Landing Exercise No. 4 at Culebra, Puerto Rico; it was to be the largest landing exercise participated by the USMC to date. [CPC]
14 Jan 1938

Photo(s) dated 14 Jan 1938
Rear Admiral Charles A. Blakeley of US Navy Carrier Division Two and his staff posed before SOC Seagull aircraft, Naval Air Station, Norfolk, Virginia, United States, 14 Jan 1938
17 Jan 1938

Japan
  • Japanese Navy revealed requirements for the next generation of carrier fighters to representatives from Nakajima and Mitsubishi; Nakajima thought the requirements were impossible and dropped out of the race, while Mitsubishi was able to meet the requirements with its prototype A6M Type 0 fighter in 1939. [Main Article | CPC]
United States
  • Franklin Roosevelt began the March of Dimes campaign to fight poliomyelitis. [Main Article | CPC]
  • Japanese Foreign Minister Koki Hirota's message to a diplomat stationed in the United States was intercepted by the Americans. In this message, he made note of the atrocities happening in Nanjing, China and compared the Japanese Army in Nanjing to those serving under Attila the Hun. [Main Article | CPC]
Photo(s) dated 17 Jan 1938
USS Yorktown anchored in the Caribbean Sea during her shakedown cruise, 17 Jan 1938
19 Jan 1938

China
  • George Fitch, an American missionary, departed Nanjing, China for Shanghai with 16-millimeter film containing scenes of Japanese atrocities secretly sewn into the lining of his jacket. [Main Article | CPC]
Russia
  • Nikolai Voznesensky became the Chairman of the State Planning Committee of the Soviet Union. [Main Article | CPC]
20 Jan 1938

Germany
  • Werner von Blomberg took a break from his honeymoon in Capri, Italy and returned to his office in Berlin, Germany. [Main Article | CPC]
Photo(s) dated 20 Jan 1938
Funeral of Blomberg
22 Jan 1938

Photo(s) dated 22 Jan 1938
Carrier Soryu running trials, 22 Jan 1938, photo 1 of 2Carrier Soryu running trials, 22 Jan 1938, photo 2 of 2
23 Jan 1938
  • The A-20 Havoc/DB-7 aircraft took its first flight. [Main Article | CPC]
24 Jan 1938
  • Fuju Han passed away. [Main Article | CPC]
  • Alfried von Bohlen und Halbach's wife, Anneliese Bahr, gave birth to a son. [Main Article | CPC]
25 Jan 1938
  • German National Ministry of the Interior ordered that protective custody must be served in concentration camps and not in institutions of the justice department. [Main Article | CPC]
  • Hermann Göring informed Adolf Hitler the shady past of Werner von Blomberg's new wife; Hitler dismissed Blomberg immediately but told him that he would call on him again if the country ever needed his service. [Main Article | CPC]
26 Jan 1938

Germany
  • Heinrich Himmler gave notice of comprehensive measures against "elements avoiding work"; employment offices were to report those capable of work who had declined job offers twice and those who left employment after a short time. [Main Article | CPC]
27 Jan 1938
  • Werner von Blomberg returned to his honeymoon in Capri, Italy. [Main Article | CPC]
Germany
  • Adolf Hitler directed that a high priority was to be given to the "Z" plan proposal for the reconstruction of the Kriegsmarine. [Main Article | AC]
28 Jan 1938
  • Franklin Roosevelt requested funding from the United States Congress to build a "Two-Ocean Navy". [Main Article | CPC]
30 Jan 1938

China
  • As reported by the International Committee later, in the Chinese capital of Nanjing at about 1700 hours, Mr. Sone of the Nanjing Theological Seminary was overwhelmed by several hundred women seeking shelter. "One old woman 62 years old went home near Hansimen and Japanese soldiers came at night and wanted to rape her. She said she was too old. So the soldiers rammed a stick up her. But she survived to come back." [Main Article | CPC]
Photo(s) dated 30 Jan 1938
Adolf Hitler on the balcony of the Reich Chancellery, Berlin, Germany, 30 Jan 1938
1 Feb 1938
  • Koichi Shiozawa was named the commanding officer of the Japanese 5th Fleet. [Main Article | CPC]
Germany
  • Robert von Greim was promoted to the rank of Generalmajor. [Main Article | CPC]
2 Feb 1938

China
  • Troops of Japanese No. 1 Yokosuka Special Naval Landing Force, 284 men, landed at Yantai, Shandong Province, China, supported by light cruiser Kuma (flagship of the operation). No. 5 Sasebo Special Naval Landing Force and No. 6 Sasebo Special Naval Landing Force would soon arrive to reinforce No. 1 Yokosuka Special Naval Landing Force, which met unexpected resistance. [Main Article | Tabular Record of Movement | CPC]
Russia
  • In the Soviet Union, the State General Planning Commission (Gosplan) was divided into two sections. The first, of four departments, dealt with major macro-economic variables, investment, finance and regional/sector planning. The second, of twenty departments, was responsible for each major industrial branch, foreign trade, food and communications. Gosplan could now claim to be overseeing the entire state economy with the right to dictate (to regional commissions) production targets and financial budgets. [AC]
3 Feb 1938

China
  • Japanese Special Naval Landing Force troops captured Yantai, Shandong Province, China. Japanese gunboats immediately entered the harbor to help eliminate the last pockets of Chinese resistance. [CPC]
Photo(s) dated 3 Feb 1938
US Secretary of State Hull presiding the Davis Cup drawing, Washington DC, United States, 3 Feb 1938
4 Feb 1938
  • Adolf Hitler took direct control of the German military. [Main Article | CPC]
  • The German cabinet met for the last time. [CPC]
  • Walther von Brauchitsch was promoted to the rank of Generaloberst. [Main Article | CPC]
Austria
  • Franz von Papen received a call at his office in Vienna, Austria from Hans Lammers in Berlin, Germany, noting that Papen was to be relieved of his duties in Austria. Within days, however, Papen would return to duty as Adolf Hitler noticed an opportunity to take Austria. [Main Article | CPC]
China
  • Japanese troops inspected the buildings of Ginling College, a school for women, in Nanjing, China, and took at least 20 women for their comfort houses. [Main Article | CPC]
Germany
  • In Germany the Oberkommando der Wehrmacht (OKW), Supreme command of the Armed Forces, was created with Wilhelm Keitel as its chief. [Main Article | AC]
5 Feb 1938

China
  • By this date, the International Committee had forwarded to the Japanese embassy a total of 450 cases of murder, rape, and other crimes committed by Japanese soldiers which were observed by American, British, and German nationals in Nanjing, China and reported by their respective embassies. [Main Article | CPC]
7 Feb 1938
  • Spanish Nationalist cavalry attacked the Spanish Republican forces to the north of Teruel, Spain. [Main Article | AC]
China
  • Japanese General Iwane Matsui made a speech during a memorial service for troops of the Shanghai Expeditionary Force who were killed in combat. The speech included his order to "put an end to various reports affecting the prestige of the Japanese troops", referring to reports of atrocities committed by Japanese troops in Nanjing, China. Later on the same day he made an entry in his dairy noting that "I could only feel sadness and responsibility today, which has been overwhelmingly piercing my heart. This is caused by the Army's misbehaviors after the fall of Nanjing and failure to proceed with the autonomous government and other political plans." [Main Article | CPC]
8 Feb 1938

Photo(s) dated 8 Feb 1938
Destroyers Cushing and Drayton at sea, 8 Feb 1938
10 Feb 1938

China
  • Tetsuzo Iwamoto was transferred to Nanjing, China. [Main Article | CPC]
United Kingdom
  • J. W. Gillan, commander of No. 111 Squadron RAF, made a flight between RAF Northolt, Middlesex, England, United Kingdom and RAF Turnhouse (now Edinburgh Airport) in Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom in a Hurricane fighter only 48 minutes, assisted by a 80mph tailwind. [Main Article | CPC]
11 Feb 1938
  • Austrian Chancellor Kurt Schuschnigg secretly went to Salzburg, Austria by car for a meeting with German leaders. [Main Article | CPC]
China
  • Deng Xihou was recalled from the front lines for staff positions in Sichuan Province, China. [Main Article | CPC]
12 Feb 1938
  • Austrian Chancellor Kurt Schuschnigg crossed into Germany and was welcomed by Franz von Papen. Taken to Adolf Hitler's residence in Obersalzberg, München-Oberbayern, Germany, he was threatened with a ultimatum and was given three days to answer. [Main Article | CPC]
15 Feb 1938
  • Austrian Chancellor Kurt Schuschnigg sent a message to Franz von Papen noting his acceptance to Adolf Hitler's demands given three days prior and probed Germany for any intention of maintaining Austrian sovereignty. [Main Article | CPC]
17 Feb 1938
  • Spanish Nationalist General Juan Yagüe's Moroccan forces crossed the River Alfambra in Spain, effectively cutting off Teruel from the north. [Main Article | AC]
18 Feb 1938

China
  • Japanese Army and Navy aircraft began a 6-month-long aerial bombardment campaign against the Chinese temporary capital city of Chongqing. [Main Article | CPC]
  • The Nanjing Safety Zone International Committee was renamed the Nanjing International Rescue Committee. [Main Article | CPC]
19 Feb 1938
  • The British cabinet rejected Foreign Secretary Eden's proposal to request Italy to withdraw its troops from Spain. The cabinet had hoped that the presence of Italian troops in Spain would discourage further German aggression. [CPC]
Taiwan
  • Lieutenant General Hisaichi Tanaka was named the chief of staff of the Taiwan Army. [CPC]
20 Feb 1938
  • Spanish Nationalist forces had almost surrounded Teruel, Spain and the Spanish Republican armies were forced to retreat along the Valencia road to the southeast, leaving the Nationalists free to take the city. [Main Article | AC]
Germany
  • Adolf Hitler assured the Deputies in the Reichstag that no problems existed between the National Socialist State and the German Armed Forces, while spoke about the German destiny to annex Austria. [Main Article | AC]
21 Feb 1938
  • Douglas MacArthur's son, Arthur MacArthur IV, was born in Manila, Philippine Islands. [Main Article | CPC]
22 Feb 1938

Russia
  • Boris Shaposhnikov was awarded his second Order of the Red Star. [Main Article | CPC]
  • Semyon Timoshenko was awarded the Order of Lenin for the first time. [Main Article | CPC]
  • Kliment Voroshilov was awarded the Order of Lenin for the second time and received the medal commemorating "XX Years of the Workers' and Peasants' Red Army". [Main Article | CPC]
24 Feb 1938
  • Austrian Chancellor Kurt Schuschnigg made the "Red-white-red until we're dead" ("Rot-weiß-rot bis in den Tod") speech at the Austrian Bundestag in protest of German threat. In the country, protests both for and against Germany appeared; meanwhile, there was a run on the banks and tourists began to leave the country. [Main Article | CPC]
25 Feb 1938
  • Over Nanchang, China, Tetsuzo Iwamoto saw combat for the first time, claiming 3 confirmed and 1 probable kills. [Main Article | CPC]
26 Feb 1938

China
  • Princess Aisin Gioro Huisheng, daughter of Prince Pujie and niece of Emperor Kangde of the Japanese-sponsored puppet state of Manchukuo, was born. [CPC]
27 Feb 1938

China
  • The US 2nd Marine Brigade headquarters and the US 6th Marine Regiment departed Shanghai, China. The US 4th Marine Regiment remained in Shanghai as the only American military unit there. [CPC]
28 Feb 1938 China
  • US Marine Corps Lieutenant Colonel W. C. James organized a unit of 200 men at Beiping, China; the unit was to be deployed shortly after to relieve the US Army troops based in Tianjin, China. [CPC]
  • Japanese aircraft bombed Wuhan, Hubei, China, causing little damage. [Main Article | CPC]
Japan
1 Mar 1938

Korea
  • Lieutenant General Kenzo Kitano was named the chief of staff of the Japanese Chosen Army in occupied Korea. [CPC]
Photo(s) dated 1 Mar 1938
Luftwaffe Day parade in front of Reich Air Ministry building on Wilhelmstraße, Berlin, Germany, 1 Mar 1938; note Göring, Christiansen, Lutze, Rust, Brauchitsch, Milch, and Raeder in attendance
2 Mar 1938

China
  • The last US Army troops departed Tianjin, China; 200 US Marines remained in the city to guard American interests there. [CPC]
Russia
  • The Trial of the Twenty-one opened in Moscow, Russia, a show trial at the end of the Great purges against 21 prominent Bolsheviks accused of anti-Stalinist plots. [AC]
Photo(s) dated 2 Mar 1938
Raised Pinghai sailing under her own power on the Yangtze River toward Shanghai, China, 2 Mar 1938
3 Mar 1938

China Saudi Arabia
  • Oil was discovered in Saudi Arabia. [CPC]
United States
  • Curtiss-Wright designer Donovan Berlin presented his Hawk 81 design to leaders of the US Army Air Corps. [Main Article | CPC]
4 Mar 1938
  • Members of the Austrian Social Democratic Party offered help against German threat if the Austrian government would lift the ban on their party activities. Chancellor Kurt Schuschnigg granted the request, but it was largely too late to make a difference. [Main Article | CPC]
5 Mar 1938 Hungary
  • The Hungarian Army, the Honvedseg, decided to embark upon a major rearmament programme (Hubs 1) and one thousand million pengos was allotted from the national budget with a significant amount assigned for the acquisition of light tanks for the new fast brigades. [AC]
Russia
  • Joseph Stalin and the Politburo ordered the Military Collegium to sentence former VCheKa member Valentin Trifonov to death per the recommendation of the GUGB of the Soviet NKVD. [Main Article | CPC]
Photo(s) dated 5 Mar 1938
Seal during her trials, off Provincetown, Massachusetts, United States, 5 Mar 1938, photo 1 of 2Seal during her trials, off Provincetown, Massachusetts, United States, 5 Mar 1938, photo 2 of 2
6 Mar 1938
  • Japanese troops reached the Yellow River in China. [CPC]
  • The modern Spanish Nationalist cruiser Baleares, which was escorting a convoy of merchant ships off the Mediterranean coast near Cartagena, Spain, was sunk by torpedoes launched by Spanish Republican destroyers during the Battle of Cape Palos. [Main Article | AC]
7 Mar 1938

China
  • American surgeon Robert O. Wilson of the American-administered University Hospital in the Safety Zone in Nanjing, China wrote to his family, noting that "a conservative estimate of people slaughtered in cold blood is somewhere about 100,000, including of course thousands of soldiers that had thrown down their arms". [Main Article | CPC]
9 Mar 1938
  • With the failure of the Spanish Republican attack upon Teruel the Spanish Nationalists were now able to launch a new eastward offensive towards Aragon and Levante in Spain. The intention was to cut Republican Spain in half. The assault was launched with General Fidel Dávila in command. [Main Article | AC]
  • Austrian Chancellor Kurt Schuschnigg announced that a plebiscite was to take place on 13 Mar 1938 to decide Austria's fate regarding the German threat. Upon learning the news, Adolf Hitler became furious. [Main Article | CPC]
10 Mar 1938
  • Adolf Hitler ordered his military leaders to review Case Otto for the invasion against Austria. [Main Article | CPC]
11 Mar 1938
  • Adolf Hitler formally issued a directive for the invasion of Austria, to be taken place on the following day. [Main Article | CPC]
12 Mar 1938

Austria
  • Germany declared, then affected by marching troops across the frontier, Anschluß with Austria. Hours later, Adolf Hitler visited Linz in the recently annexed Austria region of Germany; he met with the German-installed Austrian Chancellor Arthur Seyß-Inquart at this city to discuss details of the occupation. Ousted Austrian Chancellor Kurt Schuschnigg was placed under house arrest. [Main Article | TH]
Photo(s) dated 12 Mar 1938
German troops marching into Austria, 12 Mar 1938Adolf Hitler announcing the annexation of Austria to members of the Reichstag at Kroll Opera House, Berlin, Germany, Mar 1938
13 Mar 1938
  • A Soviet decree made the teaching of the Russian language a compulsory subject in all schools across the USSR. [AC]
Austria
  • Austrian Chancellor Arthur Seyß-Inquart claimed that Austrian President Wilhelm Miklas had resigned his post and consolidated the power of the president in the position of the chancellor; in actuality, Miklas had refused to resign. Meanwhile, Kurt Schuschnigg's small Fatherland's Front, a Fascist political party created in 1934 from the Christian Social Party, which had advocated Austrian independence along Italian Fascist lines, was disbanded; the Party leaders were either arrested by the Nazis or fled into exile. Later on this date, Hitler visited his parents' grave, then visited his hometown of Braunau and then returned to Linz to give a speech. [Main Article | CPC, AC]
China
  • Japanese aircraft bombed Nanzheng Airfield in Shaanxi Province, China. [Main Article | CPC]
Photo(s) dated 13 Mar 1938
German Army SdKfz. 221 armored car crossing from Passau, Germany into Schärding, Austria, 13 Mar 1938German Panzer II tank commander waving to Austrian women, Austria, 13 Mar 1938
14 Mar 1938
  • The French government reassured the Czechslovakian government that France would honor the terms of the alliance in the event of a German invasion. [CPC]
  • Adolf Hitler arrived in Vienna in the recently annexed Austria region of Germany. The visit to Vienna, the Austrian capital, was intended to be for the first day of the occupation, but it was delayed until this date because Heinrich Himmler's organization could not complete the rounding up of all suspected elements in the city, and that many Heinz Guderian's tanks had broken down since crossing the German-Austrian border that slowed the progress of the military occupation of the region. In Britain, Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain noted that little could have been done in the previous few days to alter Hiter's intended course regarding Austria. [Main Article | AC]
China
  • The Japanese 10th Division, 10,000 men in strength, began an offensive from Shandong Province in China toward Jiangsu Province to the south. The first clashes took place on the same day at Tengxian in Jiangsu Province. [Main Article | CPC]
Photo(s) dated 14 Mar 1938
Adolf Hitler parading in Vienna in occupied Austria, 14 Mar 1938
15 Mar 1938
  • Mingzhang Wang passed away. [Main Article | CPC]
  • Stalin's rival, Nikolai Bukharin, was shot following his conviction as a counter-revolutionary terrorist. [AC]
  • Fleet Landing Exercise No. 4 at Culebra, Puerto Rico was completed; it was the largest landing exercise participated by the United States Marine Corps to date. On the same date, the exercise Fleet Problem XIX began in US Territory of Hawaii, also participated by US Navy and US Marine Corps personnel. [CPC]
  • Salmon was commissioned into service. [Main Article | CPC]
Austria
  • At a speech in the Heldenplatz in Vienna, Adolf Hitler formally announced the "re-unificatrion" of Austria with the rest of Germany. [Main Article | AC]
China
  • 2,000 Chinese troops of the 364th Brigade dug in at Tengxian in Jiangsu Province in China, 75 miles north of the city of Xuzhou, against a 10,000-strong Japanese offensive. The Chinese bolstered its ranks by beginning to conscript and train nearly 1,000 police, militiamen, and other able-bodied men from the region. [Main Article | CPC]
Russia
  • The Soviet Military Collegium sentenced former VCheKa member Valentin Trifonov to death; Trifonov was executed within hours. [CPC]
Photo(s) dated 15 Mar 1938
Austrian family showing support for the German annexation, Mar 1938
16 Mar 1938
  • Italian aircraft based in Majorca began a three-day around-the-clock bombing campaign on the Spanish city of Barcelona. Meanwhile, Spanish Nationalists forced the Spanish Republicans to retreat up to 60 miles during the offensive toward Aragon and Levante in Spain. [Main Article | AC]
  • Benito Mussolini, previously a proponent of Austrian independence, stated his support for the recently affected German occupation of Austria. [Main Article | CPC]
China
  • The full Japanese offensive against Tengxian, Jiangsu Province, China began at 0800 hours with a bombardment by mountain guns and aircraft. Japanese troops attempted multiple times to rush into the town via collapsed portions of the city wall, but most of the attackers were cut down by Chinese troops. The east gate was taken at 1700 hours, but it was recaptured by the Chinese at 2000 hours. Through the night, 1,000 men from the Chinese 370th and 372nd Battalions were able to sneak into the town as reinforcement. [Main Article | CPC]
17 Mar 1938
  • The Soviet Union requested a meeting with the western powers to limit further German aggression in Europe. Such a meeting would never materialize. [CPC]
China
  • At 0600 hours, Japanese troops began a 2-hour bombardment on Tengxian, Jiangsu Province, China. At 0800 hours, multiple attacks began from all directions of the town. After suffering very high casualties, Japanese troops captured the west and south gates on the city wall by 1700 hours. Chinese troops on the east gate refused to fall back and fought until they could no longer hold the line; they committed mass-suicide by grenades. Overnight, Chinese troops began to withdraw troops out of Tengxian, marching them to the city Xuzhou 75 miles to the south, which was the Japanese main target of the offensive. [Main Article | CPC]
18 Mar 1938

China
  • Japanese troops captured Tengxian, Jiangsu Province, China after a two-day battle. The Chinese 31st Division began to march out of Xucheng, Henan Province for Xuzhou area, Jiangsu Province. [Main Article | CPC]
Italy
  • Adolf Hitler and Benito Mussolini met at the Brenner Pass on the Italian-Austrian border; Mussolini agreed to enter a war on the side of Germany at an opportune moment. [Main Article | TH]
United Kingdom
  • The British Chief of Naval Staff recommended the transfer of HMS Apollo to Australia. [Main Article | CPC]
  • The British Chief of Naval Staff recommended the transfer of HMS Amphion to Australia. [Main Article | CPC]
Photo(s) dated 18 Mar 1938
Hitler and Mussolini at Brennero in the Brenner Pass, Italy, 18 Mar 1938, photo 1 of 2Hitler and Mussolini at Brennero in the Brenner Pass, Italy, 18 Mar 1938, photo 2 of 2
19 Mar 1938

Photo(s) dated 19 Mar 1938
Karl-Eduard von Sachsen-Coburg und Gotha, Benito Mussolini, and Galeazzo Ciano in Rome, Italy, 19 Mar 1938
20 Mar 1938

China
  • Elements of the Japanese 10th Division captured Hanzhuang, Jiangsu Province, China, but Chinese troops halted the offensive just beyond the town. To the east, troops of the same division captured Yixian. The divisional headquarters was established at Yixian for further operations. [Main Article | CPC]
Photo(s) dated 20 Mar 1938
Li Zongren at the rail station in Tai
21 Mar 1938
  • The female prisoners at Moringen Concentration Camps were transferred to the Lichtenburg Concentration Camp, which was a camp exclusively for women prisoners. [Main Article | CPC]
China
  • The Chinese 31st Division arrived at Jiangsu Province in response of a Japanese attack. [Main Article | CPC]
Photo(s) dated 21 Mar 1938
Adolf Hitler, Albert Speer, and maybor of Nürnberg Willy Liebel inspecting the progress of the construction of a new rally ground in Nürnberg, Germany, 21 Mar 1938
22 Mar 1938

China
  • Japanese troops began to march toward Tai'erzhuang, Jiangsu Province, China, where the Chinese set up an advanced defensive position to guard the major city of Xuzhou to the south. [Main Article | CPC]
23 Mar 1938

China
  • At 0900 hours, Japanese troops wiped out Chinese outposts north of Tai'erzhuang, Jiangsu Province. Meanwhile, the Chinese 27th Division arrived at Tai'erzhuang and bolstered the defense's right flank. [Main Article | CPC]
Photo(s) dated 23 Mar 1938
Ralph Talbot off the Boston Navy Yard, Massachusetts, United States, 23 Mar 1938, photo 2 of 2
24 Mar 1938
  • British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain rejected the Soviet request to form an international bloc to contain German aggression. [Main Article | CPC]
China
  • Chiang Kaishek inspected troops at Xuzhou, Jiangsu Province, China. He personally appointed Bai Zongxi and Lin Weizu as staff officers of the 5th War Area. [Main Article | CPC]
  • Japanese artillery began bombardment the city walls of Tai'erzhuang, Jiangsu Province. Japanese troops attempted to rush into collapsed areas of the wall, but such attacks were driven back after suffering great casualties. Overnight, General Sun Lianzhong visited the town under the cover of darkness, and decided to transfer several field guns and armored vehicles to bolster defenses. [Main Article | CPC]
25 Mar 1938
  • The Evian Conference, called for by US President Franklin Roosevelt, was held in Evian, France to discuss the arrangement of homes for Jewish refugees who had fled from Germany. Ultimately the conference would result in nothing. [Main Article | CPC]
  • Adolf Hitler gave a speech at Königsberg, Germany; the approval of the annexation of Austria was his main concern. [Main Article | CPC]
China
  • Chinese troops stumbled upon the Japanese artillery position near Tai'erzhuang, Jiangsu Province and scattered Japanese gun crews, forcing the Japanese to move 1,000 men and 20 light tanks from the main assault force to deal with this surprise. [Main Article | CPC]
Italy
  • Submarine Scirè entered Italian Navy service. [Main Article | CPC]
27 Mar 1938
  • A Do 18W flying boat established a seaplane record flying non-stop in a straight distance of 8,391 kilometers from Start Point, Devon, England, United Kingdom to Caravelas, Brazil. [Main Article | CPC]
China
  • Japanese troops began to enter the town of Tai'erzhuang in Jiangsu Province; Chinese troops forced the Japanese to fight for every block. [Main Article | CPC]
28 Mar 1938
  • Incorporated Jewish congregations in Germany were legally deprived of their corporate status. [CPC]
  • Konrad Henlein met with Adolf Hitler and received instructions to demand more than what the Czechoslovakian government could provide. [Main Article | CPC]
China
  • Before dawn, troops of Chinese 9th Battalion of 186th Regiment launched nearly suicidal charges against Japanese positions at Tai'erzhuang, Jiangsu Province in an attempt to drive Japanese out of the town. The attemps were largely unsuccessful, especially after the arrival of Japanese armor cars and light tanks at 0700 hours. By nightfall, casualties were so great on the Chinese side that all auxiliary units were forced to pick up arms and operated as combat units. [Main Article | CPC]
  • Zheng Xiaoxu passed away in Xinjing, puppet state of Manchukuo (now Changchun, Jilin Province, China). [Main Article | CPC]
Photo(s) dated 28 Mar 1938
Ralph Talbot off the Boston Navy Yard, Massachusetts, United States, 23 Mar 1938, photo 1 of 2
30 Mar 1938

China
  • For the first time in the Battle of Tai'erzhuang, Chinese aircraft appeared, destroying 11 vehicles with fighters and attacked troop concentrations with bombers. They were, however, unable to counter the Japanese dive bombers that attacked the northwestern sector of the town in the afternoon. [Main Article | CPC]
31 Mar 1938 United Kingdom
  • The keel of cruiser HMS Mauritius was laid down by Swan Hunter at Newcastle upon Tyne, Tyne and Wear, England, United Kingdom. [Main Article | CPC]
1 Apr 1938
  • Hiroaki Abe was transferred out of battleship Fuso. [Main Article | CPC]
China
  • Chinese guerrilla fighters destroyed a Japanese field supply dump at Zaozhuang, Jiangsu Province by setting it afire. [Main Article | CPC]
3 Apr 1938
  • Lerida, Catalonia, Spain surrendered to Spanish Nationalist forces. [Main Article | AC]
China
  • Major fighting in Tai'erzhuang, Jiangsu Province, China caused hundreds of civilian deaths. Unable to secure permission to withdraw from the city, Chinese General Sun Liren promised his men that he would remain in the city with the rest of the troops. [Main Article | CPC]
4 Apr 1938

China
  • At 2100 hours, Chinese troops mounted attacks against Japanese positions in Tai'erzhuang, Jiangsu Province, China, with support from field guns. Japanese attempts to reinforce the positions were tied down by carefully planned Chinese maneuvers. [Main Article | CPC]
  • While off Guangdong Province, China, Kaga's aircraft which had detached from the carrier in late 1937 were reassigned back to her. [Main Article | Tabular Record of Movement | CPC]
5 Apr 1938

China
  • Troops from the Chinese First War Area arrived at Xuzhou, Jiangsu Province, China, and immediately launched a counter offensive toward embattled town of Tai'erzhuang. [Main Article | CPC]
6 Apr 1938

China
  • Battle of Tai'erzhuang: At 1530 hours, unable to defend against the Chinese counter offensive launched on the previous day, Japanese troops began to withdraw from the Jiangsu Province town, abandoning ammunition and heavy equipment in their wake. [Main Article | CPC]
United States
  • The United States recognized the German occupation of Austria. [Main Article | CPC]
  • P-39 Airacobra took its first flight at Wright Field, Ohio, United States. [Main Article | CPC]
Photo(s) dated 6 Apr 1938
Chinese troops fighting in Tai
8 Apr 1938

Photo(s) dated 8 Apr 1938
USS Lexington at anchor, 8 Apr 1938USS Ranger (foreground), USS Lexington (center), and USS Saratoga (background) at anchor off Honolulu, US Territory of Hawaii, 8 Apr 1938 during the exercise Fleet problem XIX
9 Apr 1938
  • Adolf Hitler arrived in Vienna in the recently annexed Austria region of Germany to gather support for the plebiscite of the following day. [Main Article | CPC]
China
  • Chinese troops drove Japanese forces out of the Tai'erzhuang region in Jiangsu Province, China, ending the battle. Chiang Kaishek gave the order to pursue and destroy all fleeing Japanese troops, but local commanders disobeyed, opting to give their troops some time to rest after three weeks of non-stop fighting. [Main Article | CPC]
Germany
  • German 1st Mountain Division was established. [CPC]
10 Apr 1938

Germany
  • At the Reichstag elections a single ballot paper also required voters to approve the union with Austria. There was much vote rigging by local Party officials to ensure Hitler got the result he wanted. [Main Article | AC]
Photo(s) dated 10 Apr 1938
German propaganda at the voting booth urging Austrians to vote for the annexation, 10 Apr 1938
11 Apr 1938

Japan
  • Prince Kotohito, Chief of Japanese Army General Staff, signed Directive No. 11 authorizing the use of poison gas in the Inner Mongolia region of China. [Main Article | CPC]
13 Apr 1938
  • Switzerland requested Germany not to issue passports to Austrian Jews, or to issue different passports (the later "'J' passports") to Austrian Jews so that they could be readily identified at the border and denied entry when necessary. [CPC]
China
  • Kaga launched 18 D1A2 bombers at 0830 hours, with 6 fighters in escort, to attack Tienhe airfield near Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, China; Gladiator fighters of Chinese 28th Pursuit Squadron and 29th Pursuit Squadron intercepted the group, shooting down 2 A4N1 fighters and 2 D1A2 bombers; 4 Chinese fighters were also lost in combat. [Main Article | Tabular Record of Movement | CPC]
14 Apr 1938
  • Werner Mölders arrived in Cádiz, Spain by sea. [Main Article | CPC]
15 Apr 1938
  • Vinaroz, a village about half-way between Valencia and Barcelona on the Mediterranean coast of Spain, was captured by Spanish Nationalist forces, thus cutting Republican Spain in half. [Main Article | AC]
19 Apr 1938

Germany
  • The first of four pre-production Messerschmitt Bf 110B-01 fighters powered by two Junkers Jumo 210Ga engines took to the air, despite the misgiving of senior Luftwaffe officers who had been overruled by Hermann Göring. [Main Article | AC]
20 Apr 1938
  • The Ki-36 liaison aircraft took its first flight. [Main Article | CPC]
United States
  • The US 2nd Marine Brigade of the Fleet Marine Force arrived at San Diego, California, United States from Shanghai, China. [CPC]
Photo(s) dated 20 Apr 1938
Adolf Hitler shaking hands with German actress and director Leni Riefenstahl, Germany, 20 Apr 1938
21 Apr 1938
  • Adolf Hitler summoned Wilhelm Keitel to begin the discussion of turning Case Green into an actual operation against Czechoslovakia. [Main Article | CPC]
22 Apr 1938

Germany
  • Germany passed laws requiring that properties worth more than 5,000 Reichsmarks be registered with the government. [CPC]
24 Apr 1938
  • The Nazi-aligned Sudeten German Party issued the Carlsbad Decrees, demanding autonomy for Sudetenland, Czechoslovakia. [Main Article | CPC]
26 Apr 1938

Germany
  • Germany enacted a law that required authorization for Jews to sell or rent a company. [Main Article | CPC]
29 Apr 1938
  • Tetsuzo Iwamoto shot down several Chinese fighters in combat. [Main Article | CPC]
China
  • Japanese aircraft attacked Wuhan, Hubei, China; Chinese fighters shot down 21 Japanese aircraft at cost of only 12 aircraft lost. [Main Article | CPC]
30 Apr 1938
  • Japanese captured the Chinese city of Xuzhou. [Main Article | CPC]
  • The training exercise Fleet Problem XIX, which was held in US Territory of Hawaii, was completed. [CPC]
1 May 1938
  • Spanish leader Dr. Negrin tried to sue for peace but General Franco demanded nothing less than unconditional surrender in the Spanish Civil War. [Main Article | AC]
3 May 1938
  • Construction began in Germany for the Flossenburg Concentration Camp. [Main Article | CPC]
  • HMS Afridi was commissioned into Royal Navy service with Captain G. H. Creswell as her first commanding officer. [AC]
United Kingdom
  • The German diplomats in London, England, United Kingdom reported that the British and the French were likely to support the German bid for the Sudetenland region of Czechoslovakia in order to avoid war. [Main Article | CPC]
7 May 1938
  • The United Kingdom and France urged Czechoslovakia to make concessions to Germany over the issue of Sudetenland. [Main Article | CPC]
9 May 1938
  • Leader of the Sudeten Nazi Party Konrad Henlein cut off communications with the Czechoslovakian government. [Main Article | CPC]
10 May 1938

China
  • Japanese 5th Fleet under the command of Admiral Koichi Shiozawa arrived the port city of Xiamen, China, delivering 2,000 Special Naval Landing Force troops near Fort Baishi, but outside of the range of the Chinese coastal guns. Chinese troops abandoned the fort. [Main Article | CPC]
  • Tenryu provided naval gunfire support for the amphibious assault at Xiamen, China. [Main Article | Tabular Record of Movement | CPC]
11 May 1938

China
  • Japanese troops captured the Hulishan and Baishi forts at Xiamen, China. [Main Article | CPC]
12 May 1938
  • Enterprise was commissioned into service. [Main Article | CPC]
  • Joachim von Ribbentrop instructed Konrad Henlein on how to speak with the British on the Czechoslovakia situation. [Main Article | CPC]
China
  • During the night, Chinese troops abandoned Xiamen, China for nearby Songyu; thousands of civilians attempted to evacuate the city, 60,000 of whom would make their way to Gulangyu island, which was an international zone. Shortly after the departure of the Chinese troops, Japanese Special Naval Landing Force troops would arrive to capture the city; they would later be relieved by Jinmen Garrision of the Japanese 1st Garrison Unit. [Main Article | CPC]
14 May 1938

Photo(s) dated 14 May 1938
Skipjack during trials, off Provincetown, Massachusetts, United States, 14 May 1938, photo 1 of 9Skipjack during trials, off Provincetown, Massachusetts, United States, 14 May 1938, photo 2 of 9Skipjack during trials, off Provincetown, Massachusetts, United States, 14 May 1938, photo 3 of 9Skipjack during trials, off Provincetown, Massachusetts, United States, 14 May 1938, photo 4 of 9
See all photos dated 14 May 1938
16 May 1938
  • Adolf Hitler asked his top commanders how many German divisions were on the border with Czechoslovakia and were ready to move within a twelve hour window. The answer he received was twelve. [Main Article | CPC]
Photo(s) dated 16 May 1938
Carl Mannerheim and Rüdiger von der Goltz at the 20th anniversary celebration of the libration of Helsinki, Finland, 16 May 1938
17 May 1938
  • Adolf Hitler asked for the latest intelligence report on Czechoslovakian border defenses. [Main Article | CPC]
18 May 1938

Photo(s) dated 18 May 1938
Men of the US Army 11th Field Artillery Regiment sitting on a gun, US Territory of Hawaii, 18 May 1938
20 May 1938
  • German military leaders updated the Case Green military scenario. Meanwhile, Czechoslovakian officials in Prague sent Germany a telegram demanding explanation on the arrival of German troops in Saxony near the border; the information that the Czechoslovakians had regarding the German troop movement was either inaccurate, or the Czechoslovakians had intercepted German messages regarding Case Green and were testing the Germans to confirm their suspicions. On the same day, Czechoslovakian military partially mobilized along the German border. [Main Article | CPC]
21 May 1938
  • Gneisenau was commissioned into service. [Main Article | CPC]
Germany
  • British Ambassador Nevile Henderson met with German Foreign Minister Joachim von Ribbentrop twice in Berlin, Germany on this date in regards to the tension over Czechoslovakia. British Foreign Minister Lord Halifax likewise met with German Ambassador Herbert von Dirksen in Berlin, Germany. [Main Article | CPC]
23 May 1938

United Kingdom
  • German Ambassador Herbert von Dirksen in London, England, United Kingdom noted that Germany had no intention of military aggression over Czechoslovakia. [Main Article | CPC]
24 May 1938
  • Werner Mölders became the commanding officer of the 3rd Squadron of Jagdgruppe 88 in Spain. [Main Article | CPC]
28 May 1938
  • Adolf Hitler ordered the military to prepare for an invasion of Czechoslovakia and ordered the mobilization of 96 divisions; the preparation was to complete by 2 Oct 1938. [Main Article | CPC]
  • Ousted Austrian Chancellor Kurt Schuschnigg, who had been under house arrest since 12 Mar 1938, was moved to the Gestapo headquarters in Vienna, occupied Austria. [CPC]
China
  • Japanese bombers attacked Guangzhou, Guangdong, China, killing 750 and wounding 1,350. [Main Article | CPC]
30 May 1938
  • German generals updated the Case Green military scenario, which was now being used as an invasion plan for Czechoslovakia. [Main Article | CPC]
China
  • Hideki Tojo stepped down as the chief of staff of Kenkichi Ueda (Japanese Kwantung Army in northeastern China). [Main Article | CPC]
31 May 1938

United Kingdom
  • Garland entered drydocks at Sheerness, England, United Kingdom for a scheduled overhaul and repairs on her low-pressure turbines. [Main Article | CPC]
1 Jun 1938
  • British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain told journalists that Sudeten Germans should be given more independence. [Main Article | CPC]
China
  • Dong Zhao was named the deputy commander of anti-air defenses of Shaanxi Province. [Main Article | CPC]
Germany
  • The German Army established an airborne battalion, two years after the Luftwaffe. [CPC]
3 Jun 1938
  • Seishiro Itagaki was appointed the War Minister of Japan. [Main Article | CPC]
  • Ludwig Beck sent a message to German Army chief Walther von Brauchitsch, noting his concern that an invasion of Czechoslovakia would trigger military reaction by the western powers, which would spell doom for Germany. [Main Article | CPC]
4 Jun 1938

China
  • 30 to 40 Japanese bombers attacked Guangzhou, Guangdong, China, causing an estimated 2,000 casualties (700 deaths). [Main Article | CPC]
Photo(s) dated 4 Jun 1938
Baldur von Schirach speaking at the graduation ceremony at the Hitler Youth academy in Braunschweig, Germany, 4 Jun 1938
5 Jun 1938
  • Ernst Udet claimed the 100-km closed-circuit landplane speed record flying the Heinkel He 100 V2 aircraft. [AC]
6 Jun 1938
  • Germany enacted laws to exclude Jews from commercial and industrial jobs. [CPC]
  • Nashville was commissioned into service. [Main Article | CPC]
8 Jun 1938

China
  • US Ambassador to Tokyo Joseph Grew issued a protest to the Japanese government for the bombing of Lingnan University in Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, China; the French government also issued a protest for recent attacks on a French hospital in Guangzhou. In Shanghai, China, Rear Admiral Noda Kiyoshi, who was in charge of Japanese Navy's public relations, announced that "our aviators are doing their best to avoid hitting non-combatants." [Main Article | CPC]
Germany
  • German businessman John Rabe sent a letter, a detailed report, and a roll of film (shot by US missionary George Fitch) to Adolf Hitler in the hopes that Germany would be able to influence Japan to cease the brutal treatment of the Chinese population. Rabe was unexpected threatened by the Gestapo several days later, warning him to remain quiet on this topic. [Main Article | CPC]
9 Jun 1938
  • Adolf Hitler received an intelligence report on Czechoslovakian weapons and defensive installations. [Main Article | CPC]
Germany
  • The main synagogue in München (Munich) in southern Germany was demolished. [Main Article | CPC]
11 Jun 1938

China
  • Japanese troops began to march for Wuhan, Hubei, China. [Main Article | CPC]
Photo(s) dated 11 Jun 1938
Japanese Special Naval Landing Force troops aboard a transport at Anqing, China, 11 Jun 1938
12 Jun 1938

China
  • Japanese 11th Army captured the airfield outside of Anqing, Anhui, China. [Main Article | CPC]
13 Jun 1938
  • Japanese troops captured Anqing, Anhui, China. [Main Article | CPC]
14 Jun 1938
  • Germany enacted laws requiring Jews to register their businesses. [CPC]
  • HMS Cossack (L03) was commissioned into service with Captain D. De Pass in command. [Main Article | AC]
  • Spanish Nationalist forces captured Castellon de la Plana, Spain, 40 miles north of Valencia. Spanish Republican resistance was, however, increasing and the Nationalists brought the offensive to a halt in order to allow time for their troops to rest and re-equip before the attack on Valencia. [Main Article | AC]
15 Jun 1938
  • The United States Congress passed the Fair Labor Standards Act, which was the country's first effort at establishing a minimum hourly wage (US$0.25) and a maximum number of weekly work hours (44 hours). [CPC]
  • The Spanish Republican gunboat Laya was sunk by Spanish Nationalist aircraft at Valencia, Spain. [Main Article | AC]
Germany
  • 1,500 previously-convicted Jews, including minor offenses such as traffic violations, were sent to concentration camps in Germany. [Main Article | CPC]
United States
  • USS Enterprise conducted her first air operation. [Main Article | CPC]
17 Jun 1938

China
  • Japanese troops captured Qianshan County, Anhui Province, China. [Main Article | CPC]
Photo(s) dated 17 Jun 1938
Japanese Type 95 Kurokane scout car being bogged down by the flood caused by intentional opening of Yellow River dikes by Chinese troops, Henan, China, 17 Jun 1938
18 Jun 1938
  • Adolf Hitler ensured his military leaders that there was no danger of a pre-emptive attack by the British over the matter of Czechoslovakia. [Main Article | CPC]
China
  • Rensuke Isogai was named the chief of staff of Kenkichi Ueda (Japanese Kwantung Army in northeastern China). [CPC]
United States
  • Joseph Rochefort was assigned to heavy cruiser New Orleans as the navigator. [Main Article | CPC]
21 Jun 1938
  • The British Minister of Parliament for Derby P. J. Noel-Baker spoke at the House of Commons against aerial bombing of German cities based on moral grounds. "The only way to prevent atrocities from the air is to abolish air warfare and national air forces altogether." [Main Article | CPC]
22 Jun 1938
  • McCall was commissioned into service. [Main Article | CPC]
  • Germany passed a labor conscription law that guaranteed employment but also removed job freedom. [CPC]
23 Jun 1938
  • US President Roosevelt approved a measure which specified the size of the active list of the US Marine Corps to be 2% of the active US Navy enlisted men. This act slightly increased the authorized strength of the US Marine Corps from 27,400 to 27,497. [Main Article | CPC]
  • Sir Henry Self, Contracts director at the British Air Ministry, signed a order with Lockheed for 175 Model B14 Hudson aircraft with a provision for a maximum of 250 by December 1939. It was the largest British military order placed with a US Company to date. [Main Article | AC]
24 Jun 1938

China
  • Japanese reached Madang, Jiangxi Province, China. [Main Article | CPC]
25 Jun 1938
  • Franklin Roosevelt signed the Fair Labor Standards Act, establishing minimum wages and maximum work hours in the United States. [Main Article | CPC]
Photo(s) dated 25 Jun 1938
USS Minneapolis underway, 25 Jun 1938; note
26 Jun 1938

China
  • Japanese Special Naval Landing Force troops landed behind Chinese lines at Madang, Jiangxi Province, China and captured the town. [Main Article | CPC]
29 Jun 1938 United Kingdom
  • British cruiser HMS Amphion was recommissioned as Australian cruiser HMAS Perth at Portsmouth, England, United Kingdom. [Main Article | CPC]
30 Jun 1938
  • The active duty strength of the US Marine Corps was reported to be 1,359 oficers and 16,97 enlisted men for the total of 18,365. [CPC]
  • USS Skipjack was commissioned into service, Lieutenant Herman Sall in command. [Main Article | CPC]
  • Camicia Nera was commissioned into service. [Main Article | CPC]
Photo(s) dated 30 Jun 1938
Skipjack running up Thames River after departing the Electric Boat Company shipyard at Groton, Connecticut, United States to go to the Naval Submarine Base for commissioning ceremonies, 30 Jun 1938
1 Jul 1938
  • George Patton was promoted to the permanent rank of colonel. [Main Article | CPC]
  • The Naval Reserve Act of 1938 became effective. The act established the US Marine Corps Reserve, which was to consist of the Fleet Marine Corps Reserve, the Organized Marine Corps Reserve, and the Volunteer-Marine Corps Reserve. [CPC]
China
3 Jul 1938

China
  • French colonial troops of Vietnamese ethnicity occupied the Paracel Islands (Chinese: Xisha Islands) in the South China Sea. China and Japan both protested the occupation. [CPC]
4 Jul 1938

China
  • Japanese troops captured Hukou, Jiangxi Province, China, near the border with Anhui Province. [Main Article | CPC]
6 Jul 1938

China
  • Japanese minelayer Kamome struck a mine in the Yangtze River off Pengze, Jiangxi Province, China; she was towed away for repairs. [Main Article | CPC]
7 Jul 1938

United States
11 Jul 1938

Australia
  • HMAS Albatross was recommissioned into service at Sydney, Australia to take a crew to the United Kingdom to man the cruiser soon-to-be transferred to Australia as HMAS Hobart. Albatross would departed Sydney later on the same day. [Main Article | CPC]
China
  • The Japanese Navy issued Order No. 261 to raise sunken Chinese light cruisers Ninghai and Pinghai at Jiangyin, Jiangsu Province, China. [Main Article | CPC]
14 Jul 1938
  • Japanese diplomats in Moscow, Russia demanded that Russian troops be removed from Bezymyannaya (Shachaofeng) and Zaozernaya (Changkufeng), west of Lake Khasan and Vladivostok in a contested region on the northeastern Chinese border. The Soviets rejected Japanese demands, citing Japanese violation of the First Convention of Peking of 1860 by occupying Chinese territory. [Main Article | CPC]
  • Léon Geismar was named the acting Governor-General of French West Africa. [CPC]
15 Jul 1938
  • Werner Mölders scored his first aerial victory near Algar, Spain; the victim was an I-15 fighter. [Main Article | CPC]
France
  • Representatives from the United States, United Kingdom, France, and 29 other nations met at Évian-les-Bains, France to discuss the issue of Jewish refugees fleeing out of Germany; no solid conclusion was reached. [Main Article | CPC]
Japan
  • Crown Prince Yi Un was promoted to the rank of major general in the Japanese Army. [Main Article | CPC]
Korea
  • General Kotaro Nakamura was named the commanding officer of the Japanese Chosen Army in occupied Korea, relieving Kuniaki Koiso. [CPC]
16 Jul 1938
  • Ludwig Beck sent another message to German Army chief Walther von Brauchitsch, noting his concern that an invasion of Czechoslovakia would trigger military reaction by the western powers, which would spell doom for Germany. He also included in this message that Brauchitsch should incite German Army generals to resign en masse in protest of Adolf Hitler's reckless invasion plan. [Main Article | CPC]
17 Jul 1938

Photo(s) dated 17 Jul 1938
Hanna Reitsch with a DFS Habicht glider during an air show in Kassel-Waldau, Germany, 17 Jul 1938Hanna Reitsch with Technical Director of Fieseler Erich Bachem during an air show in Kassel-Waldau, Germany, 17 Jul 1938
18 Jul 1938

United States
  • USS Enterprise departed Norfolk, Virginia, United States for her shakedown cruise. [Main Article | CPC]
Photo(s) dated 18 Jul 1938
Seaplane tender Chitose off Kagoshima, Japan, 18 Jul 1938
19 Jul 1938
  • Ludwig Beck met with German Army chief Walther von Brauchitsch, attempting to persuade him to use his influence to put a stop to the invasion of Czechoslovakia. He also offered suggestions on what he thought Adolf Hitler's government should be doing, mainly social and civil concerns, instead of provoking war at this stage of Germany's rearmament. [Main Article | CPC]
21 Jul 1938

Germany
  • Germany passed laws requiring Jews to carry identification cards, effective 1 Jan 1939. [Main Article | CPC]
22 Jul 1938

Photo(s) dated 22 Jul 1938
Émile Bertin at Calais, France, 22 Jul 1938
23 Jul 1938
  • The Namita Detachment of the Japanese 11th Army Group landed east of Jiujiang, Jiangxi, China. [Main Article | CPC]
24 Jul 1938
  • In Spain, in order to relieve pressure on the Madrid defences and to divert the Spanish Nationalist offensive directed at Valencia, Spanish Republican General Juan Modesto's newly formed Republican Army of the Ebro launched an offensive across the River Ebro. Initially the attack forced the Nationalists, commanded by General Juan Yagüe, to retreat, but after having advanced up to 25 miles in places, the Republicans dug in to await the Nationalist counter-attack. [Main Article | AC]
  • The 6th Division of the Japanese 11th Army Group attacked Taihu County, Anhui, China. [Main Article | CPC]
25 Jul 1938
26 Jul 1938
  • Japanese troops captured Jiujiang, Jiangxi, China. [Main Article | CPC]
27 Jul 1938

China
  • Japanese 106th Division marched south from Jiujiang, Jiangxi Province, China. [Main Article | CPC]
28 Jul 1938

Germany
  • Germany passed laws revoking medical certifications of Jewish doctors, effective 30 Sep 1938; thereafter Jewish doctors could only serve as nurses for Jewish patients. [Main Article | CPC]
Japan United Kingdom
  • Garland exited drydocks at Sheerness, England, United Kingdom. [Main Article | CPC]
29 Jul 1938
  • Japanese and Russian troops clashed on the border region between Manchukuo and Russia, starting the Battle of Lake Khasan. [Main Article | CPC]
31 Jul 1938
  • Japanese 19th Division and Manchukuo units defeated the Soviet 39th Rifle Corps during a night battle during the Battle of Lake Khasan. [Main Article | CPC]
1 Aug 1938
  • Jewish medical doctors in Germany lost the right to insurance. [CPC]
China
  • Xue Yue took command of the Chinese 1st Army and was tasked with defending Wuhan, Hubei Province, China. [Main Article | CPC]
2 Aug 1938
  • Soviet reinforcements arrived in the Lake Khasan region where Soviet and Japanese troops had engaged in battle for the few days. [Main Article | CPC]
3 Aug 1938
  • The 6th Division of the Japanese 11th Army Group captured Taihu County, Anhui, China. [Main Article | CPC]
  • The United Kingdom dispatched a mediator to Czechoslovakia in an attempt to persuade the Czechoslovakian leadership to cede Sudetenland. [Main Article | CPC]
4 Aug 1938
  • The first Spitfire fighter deployed into service went to No. 19 Squadron RAF. The squadron reported good performance, but the fighter had leaks and the engine was difficult to start. [Main Article | CPC]
Armenia
  • The Catholicate of Echmiatsin of Armenia was closed on the order of the Soviet government. [CPC]
China
  • Japanese and Chinese troops clashed at Jinjiashan, Maanshan, and Datianshan south of Jiujiang in Jiangxi Province, China. [Main Article | CPC]
5 Aug 1938
  • Maury was commissioned into service. [Main Article | CPC]
  • Dong Zhao was named the commanding officer of the 16th Corps. [Main Article | CPC]
China
  • In the morning, Japanese troops captured Huangdanao, Manashan, and Laohushan in Jiangxi Province, China. [Main Article | CPC]
6 Aug 1938
  • British Ambassador to Germany Nevile Henderson noted to German diplomats that the United Kingdom would not risk British lives over Czechoslovakia. [Main Article | CPC]
China
  • Japanese and Chinese troops clashed at Jinjiashan, Jinguanqiao, and Dengjiahe in Jiangxi Province, China, exchanging territories repeatedly throughout the day. [Main Article | CPC]
7 Aug 1938

China
  • Japanese troops captured Dengjiahe in Jiangxi Province, China. [Main Article | CPC]
8 Aug 1938
  • The building of Mauthausen Concentration Camp in Austria began. [Main Article | CPC]
China
  • Troops of 90th Division of Chinese 4th Corps repulsed Japanese assaults at Shizishan, Muopanshan, and Jiaojiashankou in Jiangxi Province, China. On the same day, 15th Division of Chinese 8th Corps captured Datianshan, Jiangxi. After dark, Japanese troops attacked Maanshan. [Main Article | CPC]
9 Aug 1938
  • Soviet troops drove Japanese out of the Lake Khasan region on the northeastern Chinese border. [Main Article | CPC]
10 Aug 1938

China
  • The Namita Detachment of the Japanese 11th Army Group and the Japanese 9th Division attacked Ruichang, Jiangxi, China, defended by the Chinese 3rd Army Company and the Chinese 32nd Army Group. [Main Article | CPC]
  • American gunboat USS Luzon, with US Ambassador Nelson Johnson on board, arrived at Chongqing, China. [CPC]
Germany
  • The main synagogue at Nürnberg, Germany was destroyed. [Main Article | CPC]
11 Aug 1938
  • The Battle of Lake Khasan ended indecisively. During this battle, 717 Soviet troops were killed, 75 were missing, and 2,752 were wounded. 526 Japanese and Manchukuo troops were killed and 916 were wounded. [Main Article | CPC]
United States
  • A specially prepared Focke-Wulf Fw 200 Condor aircraft "Brandenburg" (D-ACON), flown by Deutsche Luft Hansa Captains Henke and von Moreau, landed at Floyd Bennett Field, New York, United States, having made the 3,958-mile nonstop journey from Berlin via Hamburg, Glasgow, Newfoundland and Halifax in a record-breaking flight time of 24 hours and 36 minutes. [Main Article | AC]
12 Aug 1938

Germany
  • The German military was mobilized. [TH]
13 Aug 1938
  • Sokrushitelnyi was commissioned into service. [Main Article | CPC]
15 Aug 1938
  • Adolf Hitler announced to his military leaders that he intended to resolve the Czechoslovakian situation with force. [Main Article | CPC]
16 Aug 1938

Photo(s) dated 16 Aug 1938
Hitler Youth members arriving at Yokohama, Japan, 16 Aug 1938; in this photo they had just greeted their hosts with Hitler Youth members dining at the German embassy in Japan, 16 Aug 1938
17 Aug 1938
  • Adolf Hitler ordered that, in time of war, guard duties of concentration camps would be carried out by older members of the general SS; SS members older than the age of 45 began training for guard duties shortly after. [Main Article | CPC]
  • Hitler issued a decree confirming Himmler's control over the armed SS in peacetime. [Main Article | AC]
Germany
  • Germany passed laws requiring Jews to add either "Israel" or "Sara" to their names, effective 1 Jan 1939. [Main Article | CPC]
18 Aug 1938

China
  • 3 Chinese Hawk 75 and 7 Chinese I-15 fighters intercepted 27 Japanese bombers over Hengyang, Hunan, China, shooting down 1 Japanese bomber and damaging another but losing 1 Hawk 75 fighter. The remaining two Hawk 75 fighters crashed while landing. [Main Article | CPC]
19 Aug 1938

China
  • Chinese 27th Army and the Chinese 59th Corps fell back from the defensive line at Huang River, Hubei Province, China. In Jiangxi Province, Japanese 101st Division began landing troops at Xinzi. [Main Article | CPC]
20 Aug 1938
  • USS Enterprise crossed the Equator off Brazil. [Main Article | CPC]
China
  • Japanese 106th Division under Yasuji Okamura and the Japanese 101st Division launched an offensive in Jiangxi Province, China in an attempt to cut off Chinese troops in Nanxun and Wuning Railway. Chinese troops withdrew from Xinzi, Jiangxi Province after sundown, falling back toward Yikou. [Main Article | CPC]
21 Aug 1938

China
  • Japanese 10th Division captured Luoshan, Hubei Province and Xinzi, Jiangxi Province in China. [Main Article | CPC]
22 Aug 1938

Photo(s) dated 22 Aug 1938
Launching of German cruiser Prinz Eugen, 22 Aug 1938, photo 1 of 2Launching of German cruiser Prinz Eugen, 22 Aug 1938, photo 2 of 2
23 Aug 1938
  • Adolf Hitler hosted Hungarian Regent Miklós Horthy at Kiel, Germany in an attempt to recruit him to assist in the aggression against Czechoslovakia; Hitler offered him Czechoslovakian territory for his help. [Main Article | CPC]
24 Aug 1938
  • Japanese troops captured Ruichang, Jiangxi, China. [Main Article | CPC]
  • Adolf Hitler asked his generals to evaluate the possibility of the conquest and occupation of Belgium and the Netherlands. [Main Article | CPC]
25 Aug 1938

United States
26 Aug 1938
  • Adolf Hitler toured the Westwall defenses in western Germany. [Main Article | CPC]
28 Aug 1938

China
  • Chinese troops recaptured Taihu County, Anhui, China. In Hubei Province, elements of the Japanese 2nd Army Group captured Liuan. [Main Article | CPC]
29 Aug 1938
  • Japanese troops captured Tianjia, Anhui, China. [Main Article | CPC]
  • While Adolf Hitler toured the Westwall defenses in western Germany, German General Wilhelm Adam warned that Germany could not be able to defend against an invasion by France for more than three days should Germany deploy most of its forces for an invasion of Czechoslovakia. Adolf Hitler grew furious at Adam, who would retire from service at the end of the year. [Main Article | CPC]
30 Aug 1938
  • The Imperial Regalia of the Holy Roman Empire arrived at St. Catherine's Church in Nürnberg, Germany from Vienna, Austria. Items in this collection included both ceremonial items used by Holy Roman Emperors (the Imperial Crown, the Imperial Orb, the Imperial Sword, etc.) as well as relics of Christian mythology (a wood splinter said to be from the cross upon which Jesus Christ was cruxified, the spear blade said to have pierce Jesus Christ's side at the crucifixion, etc.). [CPC]
China
  • 9 Japanese bombers escorted by 6 A5M4 fighters attacked an airfield near Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, China; Galdiator fighters of Chinese 32nd Pursuit Squadron rose to intercept. 2 Japanese fighters and 6 Chinese fighters were shot down in the fighting. [CPC]
31 Aug 1938
  • Winston Churchill suggested that if United Kingdom, United States, and Soviet Union collectively asserted pressure on Germany, Germany might abandon its claims for the Sudetenland region of Czechoslovakia; he was unable to persuade fellow British politicians. [Main Article | CPC]
  • Aviere was commissioned into service. [Main Article | CPC]
Japan
  • Akagi completed her modernization, emerging with the three flight decks removed. In their place was one single flight deck running nearly the length of the ship. Aircraft capacity was increased from 61 to 91. [Main Article | Tabular Record of Movement | CPC]
1 Sep 1938
  • General Franz Halder was appointed Chief of the General Staff of the German Army (Oberkommando des Heeres), succeeding General Ludwig Beck. He was the first Catholic to be assigned this position. [Main Article | AC]
Japan
  • Masafumi Arima stepped down as the commanding officer of converted seaplane tender Kamikawa Maru and was made a commanding officer of Sasebo Naval Air Corps in Japan. [Main Article | CPC]
5 Sep 1938

Photo(s) dated 5 Sep 1938
Hitler Youth members in a reception in Japan, 5 Sep 1938, photo 1 of 2Hitler Youth members in a reception in Japan, 5 Sep 1938, photo 2 of 2
6 Sep 1938
  • HMS Zulu (L18) was commissioned into service with Commander J. S. Crawford in command. [AC]
  • The Imperial Regalia of the Holy Roman Empire was put on public display at Nürnberg, Germany. Adolf Hitler, who spoke at the revealing of the artifacts, hinted that the possession of them would allow the Germans another 1,000-year empire. [CPC]
China
  • Elements of the Japanese 2nd Army Group captured Liuan, Hubei, China. [Main Article | CPC]
United Kingdom
  • HMAS Albatross arrived at Devonport, England, United Kingdom with a crew to man the cruiser soon-to-be transferred to Australia as HMAS Hobart. [Main Article | CPC]
Photo(s) dated 6 Sep 1938
Adolf Hitler entering a Nazi Party rally, Nürnberg, Germany, 6 Sep 1938Heß greeting Hitler at a Nazi Party rally, Nürnberg, Germany, 6 Sep 1938; also present: Bormann, Epp, Schaub, HimmlerHitler, Bormann, Heß, Epp, Schaub, and Himmler entering a Nazi Party rally, Nürnberg, Germany, 6 Sep 1938Göring and Heß in conversation during a Nazi Party rally, Nürnberg, Germany, 6 Sep 1938
See all photos dated 6 Sep 1938
7 Sep 1938

United Kingdom
  • The newspaper Times of London published an editorial suggesting that Czechoslovakia had much to gain in terms of achieving ethnic homogeneity should it allowed Sudetenland to secede. Once again, leader of the Sudeten Nazi Party Konrad Henlein announced that he would cut off communications with the Czechoslovakian government. [Main Article | CPC]
Photo(s) dated 7 Sep 1938
Adolf Hitler speaking at the Nürnberg Opera House during a party rally, Nürnberg, Germany, 7 Sep 1938
8 Sep 1938
  • Alfred Jodl's diary entry on this date noted his worries about the weak defenses on Germany's western border with France. [Main Article | CPC]
Taiwan
  • Lieutenant General Tomou Kodama was named the commanding officer of the Taiwan Army. [CPC]
9 Sep 1938
  • Franklin Roosevelt announced that the United States would remain neutral on the topic of German pressures on Czechoslovakia. [Main Article | CPC]
  • HMS Mohawk (L31) was commissioned into service with Commander R. F. Jolly in command. [AC]
United Kingdom
  • The Auxiliary Territorial Service (ATS) was established as the women's voluntary branch of the British Army. [AC]
10 Sep 1938
  • At the Nürnberg, Germany rally, Hermann Göring spoke about Sudeten Germans being oppressed by the Czechoslovakians. [Main Article | CPC]
Germany
  • New air regulations in Germany prohibited overflight by all foreign aircraft except along specified air corridors established for civil aircraft. [AC]
Photo(s) dated 10 Sep 1938
Polish ambassador Josef Lipski speaking at a Nazi Party rally, Nürnberg, Germany, 10 Sep 1938; note Himmler, Ribbentrop, Henderson, and Goebbels also present
11 Sep 1938
  • Rudolf Höss was promoted to the rank of SS-Obersturmführer. [Main Article | CPC]
12 Sep 1938
  • On the closing date of the annual Nürnberg, Germany rally, Adolf Hitler spoke of striving for justice for Sudeten Germans. In France, General Maurice Gamelin reported to Prime Minister Édouard Daladier noting that the French military could easily overwhelm German defenses should France respond militarily to any German threats on Czechoslovakia. [Main Article | CPC]
Germany
  • Germany forbade Jews from attending public cultural events. [Main Article | CPC]
Photo(s) dated 12 Sep 1938
Martin Bormann, Robert Ley, Wilhelm Frick, Hans Frank, Franz von Epp, Joseph Goebbels, and Walter Buch at a Nazi rally, Nürnberg, Germany, 12 Sep 1938Erhard Milch, Wilhelm Keitel, Walther von Brauchitsch, Erich Raeder, and Maximilian von Weichs during a Nazi rally in Nuremberg, Germany, 12 Sep 1938
13 Sep 1938
  • The French cabinet met to discuss the German demands on Czechoslovakia, reaching no conclusion. [Main Article | CPC]
  • Adolf Hitler met with Joachim von Ribbentrop at Martin Bormann's home in Munich, Germany. [Main Article | CPC]
14 Sep 1938
  • Adolf Hitler departed Munich, Germany for his home in Obersalzberg in southern Germany. [Main Article | CPC]
15 Sep 1938
  • Neville Chamberlain visited Adolf Hitler at Berchtesgaden in southern Germany to discuss German demands on Czechoslovakia. Chamberlain expressed his personal approval for Germany's previous demands for Sudetenland, but would need to discuss further with his cabinet and the French. Hitler expressed his appreciation and promised that no military action would be taken. [Main Article | CPC]
Photo(s) dated 15 Sep 1938
German Ambassador to London Herbert von Dircksen, British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain, and German Foreign Minister Joachim von Ribbentrop at Lake Chiemsee, Germany, 15 Sep 1938British Ambassador to Berlin Nevile Henderson speaking to German Foreign Minister Joachim von Ribbentrop at the Grand Hotel at Berchtesgaden, Germany, 15 Sep 1938; note British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain in backgroundAdolf Hitler and Neville Chamberlain at Obersalzberg, Germany, 15 Sep 1938; note Joachim von Ribbentrop at rightMünchen police chief Friedrich Karl von Eberstein, British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain, and German Foreign Minister Joachim von Ribbentrop at München airport, Germany, 15 Sep 1938; München mayor Karl Fiehler in background
16 Sep 1938
  • The forerunner of the modern day Volkswagen car company was renamed to Volkswagenwerk GmbH. [CPC]
China
  • Japanese troops captured the city of Shang, Hubei Province, China. [Main Article | CPC]
United Kingdom
  • Neville Chamberlain departed Germany and returned to London, England, United Kingdom. In the evening, he held a cabinet meeting to discuss the German demands on Czechoslovakia. [Main Article | CPC]
Photo(s) dated 16 Sep 1938
British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain, German Foreign Minister Joachim von Ribbentrop, and British journalist Ward Price at Lake Chiemsee, Germany, 16 Sep 1938; note British Ambassador to Berlin Nevile Henderson in backgroundNeville Chamberlain and Joachim von Ribbentrop, Germany, 16 Sep 1938
17 Sep 1938
  • USS Arizona became the flagship of Battleship Division 1's Rear Admiral Chester Nimitz. [Main Article | CPC]
  • Adolf Hitler assigned an OKW officer to the Sudeten Freikorps. [Main Article | CPC]
19 Sep 1938
  • The United Kingdom and France recommended Czechoslovakia to cede Sudetenland to Germany. [Main Article | CPC]
Photo(s) dated 19 Sep 1938
Neville Chamberlain and Benito Mussolini at the Führerbau building in München, Germany, 19 Sep 1938, photo 1 of 2
20 Sep 1938
  • Sudeten Nazi leader Konrad Henlein urged Slovakians to demand autonomy with greater vigor; meanwhile, Adolf Hitler pressed the Hungarians to assert greater demands on Czechoslovakia. At 1030 hours, Czechoslovakian military mobilized. At 1700 hours, Czechoslovakian President Edvard Beneš rejected the British-French suggestion for Czechoslovakia to cede Sudetenland to Germany; going further, Beneš asked the French whether France would honor the alliance in the case of a German invasion. [Main Article | CPC]
21 Sep 1938
  • Japanese luxury ocean liner Hikawa Maru ran aground on a shoal near West Point, Washington, United States in a dense fog. [Main Article | Tabular Record of Movement | CPC]
  • Spanish leader Dr. Negrin announced, in a speech to the League of Nations, that the International Brigades were to be withdrawn from the fighting. [Main Article | AC]
  • Poland demanded Czechoslovakia to hold a plebiscite for the Zaolzie region, claiming the region, with its Polish majority, wished to join Poland. The French responded to the question from Czechoslovakian President Edvard Beneš from the previous day, noting that they would only only honor the terms of the alliance if Beneš agreed to cede Sudetenland to Germany, thus avoiding war. Seeing no help from the French, Beneš turned to the Soviet Union, which would only honor the mutual defense treaty if the French honored theirs. Receiving no support from the nations who were supposedly his allies, Beneš gave up and accepted the German demands for Sudetenland in the late afternoon. [Main Article | CPC]
Photo(s) dated 21 Sep 1938
Carrier Graf Zeppelin under construction, Kiel, Germany, 21 Sep 1938
22 Sep 1938
  • The International Brigades fighting in the Spanish Civil War were withdrawn by the Spanish Republicans from the front-line prior to them being repatriated. [Main Article | AC]
  • Seeing that the Czechoslovakians gave in to German demands, Hungary also made demands of their own on Czechoslovakian territory. On the same day, Sudeten Freikorps occupied two Czechoslovakian towns close to the German border. In Prague, the Czechoslovakian cabinet resigned. In Bad Godesberg, Germany, Chamberlain met Adolf Hitler; the German leader demanded Czechoslovakia to allow German troops to occupy Sudetenland by 1 Oct 1938. [Main Article | CPC]
United States
  • Henry Arnold was made the Chief of the US Army Air Corps. [Main Article | CPC]
  • CW-21 prototype aircraft took its first flight at Wilbur Wright Field in Riverside, Ohio, United States. [Main Article | CPC]
Photo(s) dated 22 Sep 1938
Adolf Hitler and Neville Chamberlain at Hotel Dreesen, Bad Godesberg, Germany, 22 Sep 1938; Wilhelm Keitel, Paul Otto Gustav Schmidt, Joachim von Ribbentrop, and Dörnberg also presentNeville Chamberlain and Adolf Hitler in Bad Godesberg, Germany, 22-24 Sep 1938; note Joachim von Ribbentrop in backgroundJoachim von Ribbentrop, Adolf Hitler, and Neville Chamberlain at Bad Godesberg, Germany, 22-24 Sep 1938Joachim von Ribbentrop greeting Neville Chamberlain at the airport in Köln, Germany, 22 Sep 1938
See all photos dated 22 Sep 1938
23 Sep 1938
  • In the evening, Neville Chamberlain and Adolf Hitler met again in Bad Godesberg, Germany. Hitler demanded Czechoslovakia to leave the Sudetenland area by 28 Sep 1938; Chamberlain expressed frustration that Hitler was now demanding more than what had originally been discussed; after some heated discussion, Hitler returned to the original demand of 1 Oct 1938. [Main Article | CPC]
Spain
  • Walter Grabmann claimed 3 kills in Spain, an I-15 fighter, an I-16 fighter, and a SB-2 bomber. [Main Article | CPC]
Photo(s) dated 23 Sep 1938
Wilhelm Frick, Adolf von Bomhard, and Konrad Henlein visiting Sudetenland, Czechoslovakia, 23 Sep 1938Gauleiter Konrad Henlein welcoming Prussian Interior Minister Wilhelm Frick to Sudetenland, Czechoslovakia, 23 Sep 1938Frick signing a document, Sudetenland, Czechoslovakia, 23 Sep 1938Police chief Adolf von Bomhard, Gauleiter Konrad Henlein, and Prussian Interior Minister Wilhelm Frick in Sudetenland, Czechoslovakia, 23 Sep 1938
See all photos dated 23 Sep 1938
24 Sep 1938
  • German Army chief Walther von Brauchitsch married Charlotte Rueffer. [Main Article | CPC]
  • As Neville Chamberlain departed Bad Godesberg, Germany to return to London, England, United Kingdom, Adolf Hitler promised him that the Sudetenland region of Czechoslovakia would be the last German territorial demand in Europe. In France, the French government rejected the latest German demands; the French military partially mobilized in preparation for war. [Main Article | CPC]
Germany
  • Adolf Hitler arrived in Berlin, Germany. [Main Article | CPC]
25 Sep 1938

Photo(s) dated 25 Sep 1938
Neville Chamberlain and Joachim von Ribbentrop leaving Hotel Petersburg in Bad Godesberg, Germany, 25 Sep 1938Joachim von Ribbentrop bidding farewell to Neville Chamberlain, Bad Godesberg, Germany, 25 Sep 1938Neville Chamberlain and Joachim von Ribbentrop at the Köln airport, Germany, 25 Sep 1938
26 Sep 1938 Germany
  • Adolf Hitler spoke at the Berlin Sportpalast in Germany, claiming that whether Europe was to go into war or remain in peace, it was now up to Czechoslovakian President Edvard Beneš. He also announced that Sudetenland was to be Germany's last territorial demand in Europe. In the United States, President Franklin Roosevelt sent Hitler a message in an attempt to maintain peace. Also on this day, French General Maurice Gamelin told Britain that France possess enough strength to overwhelm German defenses should France go to war over German threats on Czechoslovakia. [Main Article | CPC]
27 Sep 1938
  • Franz Halder and other German Army officers set 29 Sep 1938 as the launch date of their revolt should Adolf Hitler lead Germany into a war over the Sudetenland crisis. [Main Article | CPC]
Germany
  • Germany passed law to revoke licenses to practice law for all Jewish attorneys, effective 30 Nov 1938; thereafter Jewish attorneys could only act as "consultants" for other Jews on matters of law. [Main Article | CPC]
  • In the early afternoon, Adolf Hitler moved several divisions to the German-Czechoslovakian border. In the late afternoon, he called for a military parade on the Unter den Linden boulevard in Berlin, Germany to rouse a patriotic sentiment; Berlin citizens responded coolly, however. In the United Kingdom, British military mobilized for war, school children were evacuated from London, while trenches were dug in the city's parks. British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain recommended Czechoslovakian President Edvard Beneš to accept a partial military occupation of Sudetenland by the Germans. In the United States, President Franklin Roosevelt called for an international conference in an attempt to maintain peace. The King of Sweden also attempted to calm Hitler down, sending him a message advising him that German's current strength was no match for the combined strength of the opposing powers. Even the chief of the German Navy Erich Raeder attempted to convince Hitler to not provoke war. Late in the day, Czechoslovakia finally received some foreign support when Yugoslavia and Romania declared that they would offer military assistance should Hungary use force against Czechoslovakia. [Main Article | CPC]
United Kingdom
  • RMS Queen Elizabeth was launched at Clydebank, Scotland, United Kingdom. [Main Article | CPC]
28 Sep 1938
  • Neville Chamberlain proposed to Adolf Hitler a conference between European powers to resolve the issue of Czechoslovakia; Hermann Göring convinced Hitler to accept such an offer rather than waging war. Meanwhile, Chamberlain sent Czechoslovakian President Edvard Beneš a message to express that Britain was to represent Czechoslovakia in the upcoming conference with Germany, and Britain would keep Czechoslovakia's best interest in mind. [Main Article | AC]
  • Franz Halder went to see German Army chief Walther von Brauchitsch and gained some support for his planned overthrow of Adolf Hitler should there be a war over the Sudetenland crisis. At the end of the day, with Neville Chamberlain visiting Munich, Germany, and thus dramatically lessening the possibility of war between Britain and Germany, Halder called off the revolt. [Main Article | CPC]
Italy
  • The Italian Naval Staff (Stato Maggiore Marina) formed a special research and development section at La Spezia, Italy; it was to report to 1a Flottiglia MAS, a torpedo boat flotilla. [CPC]
United Kingdom
  • British cruiser HMS Apollo was recommissioned as Australian cruiser HMAS Hobart. [Main Article | CPC]
29 Sep 1938

Germany
  • The Munich Conference between Hitler, Chamberlain, Mussolini, and Daladier took place at the Führerbau building in München in Germany, during which Britain and France ceded Sudetenland from Czechoslovakia to Germany in an attempt to avoid war. The two Czechoslovakian representatives at the conference were locked in an adjacent room, not permitted to actually participating in the negotiations. [Main Article | TH]
Russia
  • Viktor Abakumov was named the assistant to the head of the 2nd Section in the 2nd Department of the GUGB of the Soviet NKVD. [Main Article | CPC]
Photo(s) dated 29 Sep 1938
Mussolini and Hitler, Munich Conference, Germany, 29 Sep 1938, photo 1 of 2; Göring, Himmler, and Ciano in backgroundAdolf Hitler and Benito Mussolini at München, Germany for the Munich Conference, 29 Sep 1938, photo 3 of 9DaladierDaladier
See all photos dated 29 Sep 1938
30 Sep 1938

Germany
  • Shortly after midnight, Adolf Hitler, Neville Chamberlain, Benito Mussolini, and Édouard Daladier, in that order, signed the Munich Agreement at the Führerbau building in München in Germany, which ceded Sudetenland from Czechoslovakia to Germany; the actual document was backdated to the previous day, 29 Sep 1938. Upon returning to the United Kingdom, outside 10 Downing Street in London, Chamberlain announced that "I believe it is peace for our time". [Main Article | CPC]
Photo(s) dated 30 Sep 1938
French Prime Minister Edouard Daladier departing Munich, Germany after the Munich Conference, 30 Sep 1938, photo 1 of 2; Franz von Epp and Joachim von Ribbentrop also presentFrench Prime Minister Edouard Daladier departing Munich, Germany after the Munich Conference, 30 Sep 1938, photo 2 of 2; Joachim von Ribbentrop also presentGauleiter Adolf Wagner, Foreign Minister Ribbentrop, and Ambassador Henderson accompanied Prime Minister Chamberlain as the latter was leaving Germany after Munich Conference, Germany, 30 Sep 1938Joachim von Ribbentrop and Adolf Wagner bidding farewell to French Prime Minister Daladier after Munich Conference, Germany, 30 Sep 1938
See all photos dated 30 Sep 1938
1 Oct 1938
  • Erwin Rommel became the commander of Hitler's headquarters during his tour of Sudetenland, recently annexed from Czechoslovakia. [Main Article | CPC]
  • Do 18 flying boat "Pampero" was lost in the Atlantic Ocean; the entire crew of 5 was missing and was never found. [Main Article | CPC]
China
  • The 16th Squadron of the Chinese 6th Bomber Air Group was converted to become a fighter squadron, flying Hawk 75 fighters. It was to be based out of Zhiqiang, Hunan, China. [Main Article | CPC]
Czechoslovakia
  • Following the German annexation of Sudetenland, Czechoslovakia, efforts began to arrest Sudetenland residents who opposed the Nazi government. [Main Article | CPC]
Photo(s) dated 1 Oct 1938
Adolf Hitler greeted by German officials, Munich, Germany, 1 Oct 1938
3 Oct 1938
  • Phoenix was commissioned into service. [Main Article | CPC]
  • The German ambassador in Moscow, Russia began to discuss with Soviet representatives regarding a potential Soviet-German trade agreement. [CPC]
Photo(s) dated 3 Oct 1938
Men of Sudeten German Freikorps in the city of Cheb, Czechoslovakia, 3 Oct 1938Hitler having a meal with German Army officers on the side of the road between Franzensbad and Eger, Sudetenland, Germany, 3 Oct 1938
4 Oct 1938

Photo(s) dated 4 Oct 1938
Hitler touring Graslitz, Sudetenland, Germany, 4 Oct 1938
5 Oct 1938
  • Japanese troops captured Ruoxi, Jiangxi, China. [Main Article | CPC]
  • Edvard Beneš stepped down as the President of Czechoslovakia. [Main Article | CPC]
  • Egmont Prinz zur Lippe-Weißenfeld was awarded the Luftwaffe Pilot's Badget. [Main Article | CPC]
Germany
  • Germany revoked passports belonging to Jews and made re-issuance of new passports more difficult; the new passports were stamped "J" to signify Jewish ownership. [Main Article | CPC]
6 Oct 1938

China
  • Japanese troops resumed the offensive in the Dabie Mountains region of Hubei, China after being bogged down by Chinese troops for more than a month. [Main Article | CPC]
7 Oct 1938
  • Chinese troops launched a counteroffensive in Jiangxi Province, China and enveloped elements of the Japanese 101st and 106th Divisions. [Main Article | CPC]
8 Oct 1938
  • Czechoslovakia and Hungary negotiated over territory, but the negotiations soon broke down, and Hungary threatened Czechoslovakia with war. [Main Article | CPC]
9 Oct 1938
  • The Spanish Republican submarine C1 was sunk by Spanish Nationalist aircraft at Barcelona, Spain. [Main Article | AC]
Photo(s) dated 9 Oct 1938
German troops in motorcycle and Einheits-Diesel trucks arriving in recently annexed territory of Sudetenland, Germany, 9 Oct 1938
10 Oct 1938
  • After three days of heavy fighting, the enveloped Japanese 106th Division was largely wiped out by Chinese troops at the Battle of Wanjialing in Jiangxi, China. [Main Article | CPC]
Spain
  • Walter Grabmann shot down a SB-2 bomber over Spain. [Main Article | CPC]
Photo(s) dated 10 Oct 1938
Chinese mortar team in Xinyang, Oct 1938A Sudeten German woman cried in misery as she gave the Nazi Party salute while two others saluted with happiness, Sudetenland, Czechoslovakia, Oct 1938Hitler being welcomed by a crowd in Sudetenland, recently annexed into German borders, Oct 1938Panzer IV Ausf. A tanks parading in Sudetenland, Germany (annexed from Czechoslovakia), Oct 1938
See all photos dated 10 Oct 1938
11 Oct 1938
  • Wilhelm Keitel reported to Adolf Hitler, noting that the German military was poised to invade Czechoslovakia without needing much time to prepare. [Main Article | CPC]
China
  • Japanese troops captured Yueyang, Hunan Province, China. [CPC]
12 Oct 1938
  • HMS Sikh (L82) was commissioned into service with Commander J. A. Giffard in command. [AC]
China
  • Japanese troops captured Xinyang, Henan, China and began to plan for an attack south along the Pinhan Railway toward Wuhan, Hubei, China. [Main Article | CPC]
  • Troops of the Japanese 5th Division, 18th Division, and 104th Division landed at Daya Bay 75 kilometers southeast of Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, China; the landing operation was supported in the air by both Japanese Navy and Japanese Army aircraft, flying in from as far was Taiwan. [Main Article | CPC]
13 Oct 1938
  • Chinese troops withdrew from the Wanjialing area in Jiangxi, China, the site of a victory three days prior. [Main Article | CPC]
Photo(s) dated 13 Oct 1938
Ethnic Polish band in the city of Karviná welcoming the annexation of the region of Zaolzie by Poland, Oct 1938Czechs expelled from Sudetenland at the refugees office in Prague, Czechoslovakia, 13 Oct 1938
15 Oct 1938
  • The Czechoslovakian government resigned after Germany occupied the Sudetenland. [Main Article | TH]
Spain
  • Walter Grabmann shot down an I-16 fighter over Spain. [Main Article | CPC]
Taiwan
  • Major General Kazuo Otsu was named the chief of staff of the Taiwan Army. [CPC]
16 Oct 1938
  • Franklin Roosevelt signed a secret order to expand American air power by 15,000 machines per year. [Main Article | CPC]
18 Oct 1938
  • British troops in Palestine captured Jerusalum from Arab rebels. [CPC]
  • Werner Mölders was promoted to the rank of Hauptmann, effective as of 1 Oct 1938. [Main Article | CPC]
United States
  • Germany recalled its ambassador in Washington DC, United States [CPC]
19 Oct 1938

Japan
  • Prince Hiroyasu's first child, Prince Hiroyoshi, passed away. [Main Article | CPC]
21 Oct 1938
  • HMS Gurkha (L52) was commissioned into service with Commander F. R. Parham in command. [AC]
  • Adolf Hitler issued the order to his top military commanders noting that German forces must be ready to seize the remainder of Czechoslovakia and Memel in Lithuania with minimal notice. [Main Article | CPC]
China
  • Japanese troops captured the city of Guangzhou in Southern China nearly unopposed. The city was afire from both heavy Japanese bombing in the previous few days as well as from fires set by the retreating Chinese troops. [Main Article | CPC]
  • Japanese troops captured Chinese gunboat Yongji at Xinti, Hubei, China. [CPC]
  • Before dawn, HMS Birmingham sailed along the coast of Gulangyu island, an international zone, near Xiamen, China. At 0800 hours, she sailed into Xiamen harbor between four columns of Japanese war ships by surprise; Birmingham's crew was able to take photographs of classified Japanese naval equipment such as fire controls and radar antennae before the Japanese crew was able to cover them up. At 1100 hours, Birmingham set sail for Hong Kong. [Main Article | CPC]
  • Kirishima launched a E8N1 Type 95 floatplane and photographed HMS Birmingham off Xiamen, China. [Main Article | Tabular Record of Movement | CPC]
Photo(s) dated 21 Oct 1938
Kirishima off Amoy, China, photographed by USS Pillsbury (DD-227), 21 Oct 1938, photo 1 of 3; note battleship Ise in backgroundKirishima off Amoy, China, photographed by USS Pillsbury (DD-227), 21 Oct 1938, photo 2 of 3Kirishima off Amoy, China, photographed by USS Pillsbury (DD-227), 21 Oct 1938, photo 3 of 3Battleship Kongo off Xiamen, Fujian Province, China, 21 Oct 1938; seen from destroyer USS Pillsbury
22 Oct 1938
  • Czechoslovakia offered Hungary a piece of territory in Subcarpathian Rus to Hungary, but Hungary rejected the offer, demanding more territory. [Main Article | CPC]
China
  • Japanese troops reached the southern borders of Wuhan, Hubei, China. [Main Article | CPC]
23 Oct 1938

China
  • Japanese troops captured Humen, Guangdong Province, China. [Main Article | CPC]
24 Oct 1938

China
  • Japanese troops captured Huangpo, Anhui, China and began to march toward the northern border of Wuhan, Hubei, China. In the same province, elements of the Japanese 2nd Army Group captured the city of Ma. [Main Article | CPC]
  • Japanese aircraft sank Chinese gunboat Zhongshan. [CPC]
Germany
  • Joachim von Ribbentrop met with Polish ambassador Józef Lipski at Berchtesgaden in southern Germany. During the meeting, he noted that Danzig was German and Germany wanted to see it back within German borders. He also noted that Germany wanted to build a highway and a railway through western Poland to connect East Prussia with the main German territory, and that Germany would like to have Poland join the Anti-Comintern Pact. [Main Article | CPC]
25 Oct 1938

China
  • Japanese troops captured Sanshui (also "Samshui" in Cantonese), Guangdong Province, China. [Main Article | CPC]
26 Oct 1938

China
  • Japanese troops captured undefended Wuchang and Hankou (now districts of the city of Wuhan) in Hubei, China. [Main Article | CPC]
Photo(s) dated 26 Oct 1938
Japanese troops in the suburbs of Hankou (now part of Wuhan), Hubei Province, China, late Oct 1938
27 Oct 1938
  • Italian Foreign Minister Galeazzo Ciano persuaded German Foreign Minister Joachim von Ribbentrop that Germany and Italy should arbitrate over the Czechoslovakian-Hungarian territorial dispute. [Main Article | CPC]
Photo(s) dated 27 Oct 1938
Japanese troops celebrating the capture of Wuhan at the Wuhan barracks, 27 Oct 1938
28 Oct 1938

Germany
  • Germany expelled 15,000 to 17,000 Jews of Polish origin across the Polish border. [Main Article | CPC]
Photo(s) dated 28 Oct 1938
Polish-German Jews being gathered for deportation, Nürnberg, Germany, 28 Oct 1938, photo 1 of 3Polish-German Jews being gathered for deportation, Nürnberg, Germany, 28 Oct 1938, photo 2 of 3Polish-German Jews being gathered for deportation, Nürnberg, Germany, 28 Oct 1938, photo 3 of 3
29 Oct 1938
  • Czechoslovakia and Hungary agreed to allow Germany and Italy arbitrate their territorial dispute. [Main Article | CPC]
  • Pierre François Boisson was named the acting Governor-General of French West Africa. [CPC]
China
  • Japanese Navy warships entered the harbor of Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, China, raising the Japanese Navy ensign on the customs buoy. [Main Article | CPC]
30 Oct 1938
  • Spanish Nationalist forces launched a massive attack near River Ebro in Spain. [Main Article | AC]
31 Oct 1938
  • Cruiser Köln began five months of repairs and refitting at Kiel, Germany. [Main Article | CPC]
  • Poland noted to the Germans that Danzig was to remain independent, and that Poland was not interested in signing the Anti-Comintern Pact. [Main Article | CPC]
1 Nov 1938
  • German newspaper Kinzigwacht declared the town of Gelnhausen, Germany Judenfrei, "Free of Jews", after the town's synagogue closed its doors and the Jews forced to moved out. [Main Article | CPC]
  • Quintin Brand was promoted to the rank of air commodore while commanding the No. 12 Group. [Main Article | CPC]
  • Wilhelm Keitel was promoted to the rank of Generaloberst. [Main Article | CPC]
  • The trial of the Partido Obrero de Unification Marxista (POUM) leaders in Barcelona, Spain was completed; two of the defendants were acquitted but four others were sentenced to imprisonment. The revolutionary anti-Stalinist Marxist POUM was formed in 1935 as the result of the merger of the Workers and Peasants Bloc (BOC), led by Joaquin Maurin, and Izquierda Comunista (Left Communist Party), led by Andres Nin. [AC]
Russia
  • Viktor Abakumov was named the head of the 2nd Section of the 2nd Department of the GUGB of the Soviet NKVD. [Main Article | CPC]
Photo(s) dated 1 Nov 1938
Sargo underway during her trials off Provincetown, Massachusetts, United States, 1 Nov 1938, photo 1 of 3Sargo underway during her trials off Provincetown, Massachusetts, United States, 1 Nov 1938, photo 2 of 3Sargo underway during her trials off Provincetown, Massachusetts, United States, 1 Nov 1938, photo 3 of 3
2 Nov 1938
  • Arbitration of Vienna gave Hungary southeastern Slovakia and Ruthenia. [Main Article | CPC]
Photo(s) dated 2 Nov 1938
Lieutenant General Daluege at a German police riding school in Rathenow, Germany, 2 Nov 1938Czechoslovakian Foreign Minister Frantisek Chvalkovsky, Italian Foreign Minister Galeazzo Ciano, German Foreign Minister Joachim von Ribbentrop, and Hungarian Foreign Minister Kálmán Kánya at the First Vienna Arbitration, 2 Nov 1938
3 Nov 1938
  • Werner Mölders scored his final aerial victory in the Spanish Civil War. [Main Article | CPC]
4 Nov 1938
  • The Nazi German censorship office, the Prüfungskommission, banned all maps defining ethnic or cultural regions within German territory. [AC]
5 Nov 1938
  • Hungary began to occupy territory ceded by Czechoslovakia per the First Vienna Award. [Main Article | CPC]
7 Nov 1938
  • Italy organized the Milizia Artiglieria Contraerea, which were anti-aircraft and coastal artillery militia units. [CPC]
France
  • French Jew Herschel Grynszpan, whose parents were recently expelled from Germany into Poland, assassinated German consular aide Ernst Vom Rath in Paris. [Main Article | CPC]
  • German diplomat Ernst vom Rath was shot three times with a revolver by Herschel Grynszpan in Paris, France. [Main Article | CPC]
Germany
  • Hans-Joachim Marseille was accepted into flight training and was given the rank of Flieger. [Main Article | CPC]
Photo(s) dated 7 Nov 1938
Herschel Grynszpan under arrest after shooting German diplomat Ernst vom Rath, Paris, France, 7 Nov 1938
8 Nov 1938

Photo(s) dated 8 Nov 1938
Herschel Grynszpan under arrest after shooting German diplomat Ernst vom Rath, Paris, France, 8 Nov 1938
9 Nov 1938
  • Ernst vom Rath passed away. [Main Article | CPC]
  • Rudolf Höss was promoted to the rank of SS-Hauptsturmführer. [Main Article | CPC]
Germany
  • Kristallnacht began in Germany; Jewish shops and synagogues were smashed, looted, burned, and destroyed throughout the country. [Main Article | TH]
Photo(s) dated 9 Nov 1938
Damaged Orthodox Synagogue on Herzog-Rudolf-Straße in Munich, Germany, 9 Nov 1938, photo 1 of 2Jewish business destroyed during Kristallnacht, Magdeburg, Germany, 9 Nov 1938, photo 1 of 3Jewish business destroyed during Kristallnacht, Magdeburg, Germany, 9 Nov 1938, photo 2 of 3Jewish business destroyed during Kristallnacht, Magdeburg, Germany, 9 Nov 1938, photo 3 of 3
See all photos dated 9 Nov 1938
10 Nov 1938
  • Hungary completed the occupation of territory ceded by Czechoslovakia per the First Vienna Award. [Main Article | CPC]
  • Erwin Rommel became the commanding officer of the military academy at Wiener Neustadt in southern Germany. [Main Article | CPC]
  • Georg von Bismarck became the commanding officer of the 7th Infantry Regiment in Gera, Germany. [Main Article | CPC]
China
  • The defensive garrison at Changsha, Hunan Province, China organized special teams around the city, who task was to set designated buildings ablaze once given the signal. The goal of it was to deprive the Japanese the use of the city should it fall to the imminent Japanese attack. [CPC]
Photo(s) dated 10 Nov 1938
The Great Berlin Synagogue burning during Kristallnacht, 10 Nov 1938Damage to the Uhlfelder department store in Munich, Germany after Kristallnacht, 10 Nov 1938, photo 1 of 4Damage to the Uhlfelder department store in Munich, Germany after Kristallnacht, 10 Nov 1938, photo 2 of 4Damage to the Uhlfelder department store in Munich, Germany after Kristallnacht, 10 Nov 1938, photo 3 of 4
See all photos dated 10 Nov 1938
11 Nov 1938
  • Hungarian Regent Miklós Horthy toured territory newly gained from Czechoslovakia. [Main Article | CPC]
Photo(s) dated 11 Nov 1938
A Jewish-owned business vandalized during Kristallnacht, 11 Nov 1938Prayer books scattered on the floor of the choir loft in the Zerrennerstraße synagogue in Pforzheim, Germany, circa Nov 1938, photo 1 of 2Prayer books scattered on the floor of the choir loft in the Zerrennerstraße synagogue in Pforzheim, Germany, circa Nov 1938, photo 2 of 2
12 Nov 1938
  • The Hungarian Parliament officially incorporated the newly acquired territory from Czechoslovakia into its borders. [Main Article | CPC]
China
  • Zhang Zhizhong, upon receiving inaccurate intelligence about approaching Japanese troops, gave the order to set fire to several key buildings in Changsha, Hunan Province, China to deprive the Japanese of use should they be captured. The fire grew out of control, causing extensive property damage and killing a number of civilians. This event would lead to his firing. [Main Article | CPC]
Germany
  • German government found Jews collectively responsible to pay one billion Reichsmarks for damage done during Kristallnacht. Also, laws were enacted to completely exclude Jews from jobs in commerce and industry. [Main Article | CPC]
13 Nov 1938

China
  • Failures in communications in the city of Changsha, Hunan Province, China led to the commencement of a scorched earth operation which was only suppose to take effect when the city was about to fall into Japanese hands. Fires were started at pre-arranged locations around the city, starting the Wenxi Fire that would burn for five days, killing 3,000 people and destroying a large number of buildings. [CPC]
14 Nov 1938
  • Artigliere was commissioned into service. [Main Article | CPC]
  • The United States recalled its ambassador in Berlin, Germany. [CPC]
15 Nov 1938
  • Hiroaki Abe was promoted to the rank of rear admiral. [Main Article | CPC]
  • Tamon Yamaguchi was promoted to the rank of rear admiral. [Main Article | CPC]
  • Captain Aritomo Goto was named the commanding officer of battleship Mutsu. [Main Article | Tabular Record of Movement | CPC]
  • Takeo Takagi was promoted to the rank of rear admiral. [Main Article | CPC]
  • Chuichi Nagumo was named the commanding officer of the 3rd Cruiser Division. [Main Article | CPC]
China
  • Vice Admiral Ichiro Sato succeeded Vice Admiral Masaichi Maeda as the commanding officer of the Ryojun Military Port (previously known as Port Arthur; now Lushunkou, Liaoning Province, China), Kwantung Leased Territory in northeastern China. [Main Article | CPC]
Germany
  • In Germany, Jewish children were expelled from schools. [Main Article | CPC]
Japan Korea
  • Vice Admiral Sonosuke Kobayashi was named the commanding officer of Chinkai Guard District in southern Korea. [Main Article | CPC]
Spain
  • The International Brigades paraded through Barcelona, Spain before being disbanded. [Main Article | AC]
Taiwan
  • Vice Admiral Goro Hara was named the commanding officer of the Mako naval port at Pescadores islands, Taiwan. [Main Article | CPC]
16 Nov 1938

Russia
  • Lavrentiy Beria personally interrogated Yakov Serebryansky, a former NKVD leader; Serebryansky later reported that he was beaten severely until he agreed to sign a previously prepared confession document.  [Main Article | CPC]
18 Nov 1938
  • Spanish Nationalist forces pushed Spanish Republican forces back across the River Ebro in Spain. [Main Article | AC]
20 Nov 1938 United Kingdom
  • Queen Maud of Norway passed away from heart failure at the age of 68 following surgery in London, England, United Kingdom. [AC]
24 Nov 1938
  • Adolf Hitler ordered his top military leaders to prepare plans for the invasion of the Free City of Danzig, but careful to include that it was not to include war with Poland. [Main Article | CPC]
25 Nov 1938

Germany
  • German Major General Otto von Loosow passed away. Once the military commander of the region that included Bavaria, von Lossow had been one of the triumphirate appointed, in 1923, by Eugen von Knilling to enforce the state of emergency proclaimed in München (Munich), Germany which had led to the infamous Beer Hall Putsch. [AC]
26 Nov 1938
  • Oswald Mosley's son Oswald Alexander Mosley was born. [Main Article | CPC]
28 Nov 1938

Germany
  • German police issued orders restricting movement of Jews. [Main Article | CPC]
30 Nov 1938
  • The Czechoslovakian National Assembly elected Dr. Emil Hacha as the president of the republic. The official name of the country was changed by adding a dash, becoming Czecho-Slovak Republic, or Czecho-Slovakia for short. [Main Article | CPC]
1 Dec 1938
  • Rudolf Beran became the prime minister of Czechoslovakia. [CPC]
  • During this month, US agreed to loan $25,000,000 to China for the war against Japan. [CPC]
  • HMS Nubian (L36) was commissioned into service with Commander R. W. Ravenhill in command. [AC]
Photo(s) dated 1 Dec 1938
Carl Mannerheim presenting a gift to Rudolf Walden on his 60th birthday, 1 Dec 1938
2 Dec 1938
  • Lord Gort submitted a report noting that the German military had improved in its fighting qualities over the past year, especially since the annexation of Czechoslovakia, while the British Army fighting strength had been weakened due to political decisions made in 1937. [Main Article | CPC]
3 Dec 1938

Germany
  • German government revoked driver's licenses held by Jews. [Main Article | CPC]
5 Dec 1938
  • Werner Mölders returned to Germany from Spain. [Main Article | CPC]
  • HMS Maori (L24) was commissioned into service with Commander G. N. Brewer in command. [AC]
Russia
  • Viktor Abakumov was named acting head of the UNKVD Directorate of Rostov Oblast, Russia. [Main Article | CPC]
6 Dec 1938
  • Werner Mölders was assigned to the 1st Group of the Jagdgeschwader 133. [Main Article | CPC]
  • France and Germany signed a pact which purported to guarantee the existing frontiers between the two countries. [AC]
  • Seishiro Itagaki, as one of the Five Minister Council under the leadership of Prime Minister Konoe Fumimaro, declared that the deportation of Jews in Japan, including occupied territories in China and Korea, was prohibited. [Main Article | CPC]
8 Dec 1938

Germany
  • A decree on "Combating the Gypsy Plague" was published by Heinrich Himmler as Chief of the Reich Police. Under the decree German Gypsies would now be considered as an alien race and therefore be liable for deportation or forced Labour. [Main Article | AC]
  • Graf Zeppelin was launched. [Main Article | CPC]
Photo(s) dated 8 Dec 1938
Launching of Graf Zeppelin, Kiel, Germany, 8 Dec 1938
9 Dec 1938

Photo(s) dated 9 Dec 1938
German Army General Werner Kienitz speaking to recruits at the Heldenplatz in Vienna, Austria, 9 Dec 1938; note 7.5 le.IG 18 infantry guns on display
10 Dec 1938
  • The Lockheed Hudson took flight for the first time. The Hudson would later become the first American-built aircraft to be used operationally by the RAF in World War II. Based on the Electra civil airliner, it was ordered by the British Purchasing Commission as early as in Jun 1938 and deliveries began arriving in the UK in Jan 1939. Pressed into service for Maritime Patrol and Anti-Shipping missions, the type saw wide-spread service around the world and was also operated by the RCAF, RAAF, RNZAF, and both the USAAF and US Navy. [Main Article | AC]
Sweden
  • Italian physicist Professor Enrico Fermi received the Nobel prize for Physics in Stockholm, Sweden for his work on radioactive elements. Instead of returning home he then fled to the United States with his family (his wife was Jewish) and would later contribute to the Manhatten Project. [AC]
Photo(s) dated 10 Dec 1938
Author Pearl Buck receiving the Nobel Prize for Literature from King Gustaf V, Stockholm Concert Hall, Sweden, 10 Dec 1938
11 Dec 1938

Japan
12 Dec 1938
  • HMS Somali (L33) was commissioned into service with Captain R. S. G. Nicholson in command. [AC]
  • Albacore aircraft took its first flight. [Main Article | CPC]
13 Dec 1938
  • Germany enacted a law to exclude Jewish doctors. [CPC]
14 Dec 1938
  • Geniere was commissioned into service. [Main Article | CPC]
China
15 Dec 1938
  • Nobutake Kondo was named the commanding officer of the Japanese 5th Fleet. [Main Article | CPC]
China
  • Crown Prince Yi Un was attached to the Japanese Northern China Army. [Main Article | CPC]
Japan Taiwan
  • Rear Admiral Raizo Tanaka was named the Chief of Staff of the Mako naval port at Pescadores islands, Taiwan. [Main Article | Facility | CPC]
United States
  • The combination of The T10 gun and T5 carriage was officially adopted as the 37 mm Gun M3 and Carriage M4. [Main Article | CPC]
16 Dec 1938
  • Ark Royal was commissioned into service. [Main Article | CPC]
17 Dec 1938
  • U-47 was commissioned into service. [Main Article | CPC]
  • Wilhelm Keitel ordered that the invasion of the remainder of Czechoslovakia must be done by a peacetime German Army that was not reinforced by mobilization. [Main Article | CPC]
18 Dec 1938
  • German scientist Otto Hahn split the uranium atom. [CPC]
19 Dec 1938

Photo(s) dated 19 Dec 1938
Prisoners in the concentration camp at Sachsenhausen, Germany, 19 Dec 1938
20 Dec 1938
  • Carabiniere was commissioned into service. [Main Article | CPC]
21 Dec 1938
  • HMS Ashanti (L51) was commissioned into service with Commander W. G. Davis in command. [AC]
  • Lord Gort recommended the British Chiefs of Staff that the United Kingdom must assist France in the defense of the Low Countries should they be challenged by Germany. To achieve this, he advocated the improvement of British infantry and armored divisions. [Main Article | CPC]
United States
  • Charles Pownall was named the commanding officer of USS Enterprise. [Main Article | CPC]
22 Dec 1938
  • The German ambassador in Moscow, Russia began a second round of discussions with Soviet representatives regarding a potential trade agreement. [CPC]
23 Dec 1938
  • Having cut the Spanish Republican forces into two the Spanish Nationalists now launched an offensive against Catalonia. A frontal assault by six Nationalist armies proved too much for the already exhausted Republicans, who would soon retreat towards Barcelona. [Main Article | AC]
24 Dec 1938

Germany
  • German SS leader Reinhard Heydrich advised Gestapo leaders to investigate reasons for arrests, as there were now more prisoners than the space available in concentration camps. [Main Article | CPC]
25 Dec 1938

Photo(s) dated 25 Dec 1938
Aoba undergoing aircraft catapult trials, 25 Dec 1938
26 Dec 1938

China
  • Japanese bombers attacked Chongqing, China during the day; this was the first time the temporary capital was bombed during the daylight hours. [Main Article | CPC]
28 Dec 1938

Russia
  • Viktor Abakumov was promoted to the rank of State Security Captain. [Main Article | CPC]
30 Dec 1938
  • HMS Eskimo (L75) was commissioned into service with Commander St. J. A. Micklethwait in command. [AC]
  • The Spanish Republican destroyer Diez was damaged by the Spanish Nationalist cruiser Canarias off the coast near Catalon Bay, Gibraltar. The Diez was so badly damaged that she had to be beached to stop her sinking. She was later towed to Gibraltar and remained there, interned, until the end of the war. [Main Article | AC]
31 Dec 1938
  • The Supreme Court of the USSR ruled that cases brought under Article 58 of the Kirov Law had to demonstrate the intent to commit counter-revolutionary or terrorist crime. This ruling went some way into restricting the activities of various kangaroo courts which had been using the law as virtual unrestricted power to kill anyone who came into their hands. During the course of 1939 a number of public trials were held of State Security officials, accused of fabricating evidence and perverting the course of justice. [AC]

Timeline Section Founder: Thomas Houlihan
Contributors: Alan Chanter, C. Peter Chen, Thomas Houlihan, David Stubblebine
Special Thanks: Rory Curtis




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"No bastard ever won a war by dying for his country. You win the war by making the other poor dumb bastard die for his country!"

George Patton, 31 May 1944