19 Apr 1886
19 Apr 1915
19 Apr 1918
  • Quintin Brand was promoted to the rank of temporary major. [Main Article | CPC]
19 Apr 1922
  • Future German fighter ace, Erich Hartmann (352 victories), was born at Weissach in Wüttemberg, Germany. [AC]
19 Apr 1923

Photo(s) dated 19 Apr 1923
Crown Prince Hirohito at Shinchiku Train Station, Shinchiku City (now Hsinchu), Shinchiku Prefecture, Taiwan, 19 Apr 1923
19 Apr 1935
  • Monaghan was commissioned into service. [Main Article | CPC]
  • Chen Changjie was promoted to the permanent rank of brigadier general. [Main Article | CPC]
19 Apr 1937
  • In Spain, the Falange and Carlist Movement were united and became the FET (Falange Espanola Tradicionalista y de las Junta de Ofensive Nacional-Sindicalista). [AC]
19 Apr 1938

  • The first of four pre-production Messerschmitt Bf 110B-01 fighters powered by two Junkers Jumo 210Ga engines took to the air, despite the misgiving of senior Luftwaffe officers who had been overruled by Hermann Göring. [Main Article | AC]
19 Apr 1939

Photo(s) dated 19 Apr 1939
Porter off Yorktown, Virginia, United States, 19 Apr 1939
19 Apr 1940
  • Japan informed the United States that Japan had no aggressive intentions toward the Dutch East Indies. [CPC]
  • The first engagement between British and German troops in Norway took place at Verdal, north of Trondheim, when the British 146th Brigade and Norwegian troops clashed with troops of the German 138th Gebirgsjäger Regiment; later on the same day, 45 German paratroopers surrendered to the Norwegian forces at Dombås. Norwegian General Ruge convinced British Brigadier Morgan to lead the British 148th Brigade in an effort to block the German advance from Oslo. Overnight, 3 battalions of French mountain troops arrived at Namsos, Norway, but without their skis, mules, and anti-aircraft weapons. [Main Article | CPC]
  • Three Neubaufahrzeug prototype heavy tanks arrived in Oslo, Norway largely as a show of force to intimidate Norwegians. [Main Article | CPC]
  • Germany announced the formation of the Reich Commissariat for the occupied Norwegian Territories. [CPC]
  • Émile Bertin was damaged by German aircraft off Namsos, Norway; she would be sent to Brest, France for repairs. [Main Article | CPC]
Photo(s) dated 19 Apr 1940
Three German Neubaufahrzeug heavy tanks at Oslo, Norway, 19 Apr 1940
19 Apr 1941
  • Indian 5th Division (marching south from Amara, Eritrea, Italian East Africa) and British 1st South African Brigade (marching north from Addis Ababa, Abyssinia) attacked toward the 7,000-strong Italian garrison at Amba Alagi, Abyssinia. [Main Article | CPC]
  • German troops captured Larisa, Greece, theoretically allowing them to move south along the eastern coast of Greece, thus this movement was to be hampered by roads and bridges that were destroyed by retreating Allied troops. Elsewhere, troops of German Leibstandarte SS Adolf Hitler Regiment captured Ioannina 50 miles from the western coast of Greece, further frustrating the southward retreat of Greek Epirus Army from Albania. British General Wavell flew to Athens, Greece for a meeting with King George II where the king agreed that the Allies could not hold Greece, and preparations should begin immediately to evacuate troops to Crete to prevent further destruction of the country. General Wilson was ordered to prepare for a stand at Thermopylae with a small rearguard force to protect the southward evacuation of British troops. [Main Article | TH]
  • 450 British commandos conducted an amphibious raid against Axis forces in Bardia, Libya. An Italian supply dump and a coastal artillery battery were destroyed. While most men were successfully evacuated after the raid, 1 was killed by friendly fire and 67 were captured after getting lost and going to the wrong beach. [Main Article | CPC]
  • Erwin Rommel personally inspected the front lines in the Libyan-Egyptian border area. [Main Article | CPC]
United Kingdom
  • 712 German bombers conducted a heavy raid on London, England, United Kingdom starting in the evening hours. Although the primary target was the London docks, the Old Place School in Poplar, East London, which was being used as a sub-fire station, was struck by a stray bomb, killing 13 London firefighters of both genders and 21 male Beckenham firemen; it was the largest single loss of firefighters in British history. The bombing continued past midnight. [Main Article | TH]
19 Apr 1942
  • German submarine U-136 sank US freighter Steel Maker 200 kilometers southeast of Cape Hatteras, North Carolina, United States, killing 1 of 45 aboard. [Main Article | CPC]
  • USS Gar began her second war patrol. [Main Article | CPC]
  • German submarine U-130 attempted to bombard oil storage tanks near Willemstad on the island of Curaçao but was driven away by coastal defense guns before any damage was done. [Main Article | CPC]
  • Slim, Wavell, and Alexander met to start discussing plans for a major retreat of Allied personnel out of Burma. [Main Article | CPC]
  • HMS Edinburgh arrived at Murmansk, Russia. [Main Article | CPC]
  • James Johnson shot down a German Fw 190 fighter. [Main Article | CPC]
  • US and Filipino prisoners of war were loaded onto cramped freight trains from San Fernando to Camp O'Donnell at Capas, Tarlac, Philippine Islands; many died en route. [Main Article | CPC]
  • British submarine HMS Umbra sank Italian ship Assunta de Gregori off Sfax, Tunisia. [CPC]
  • Off Palestine, German submarine U-81 sank a sailing vessel by gunfire at 1651 hours and sank sailing vessel Hefz el Rahman by ramming at 2200 hours. [CPC]
  • ShCh-401 pursued a German convoy with torpedoes off Tanafjord, Norway, targeting tanker Forbach; the submarine was driven off by German mineseepers M 154 and M 251 before the attack was made. [Main Article | CPC]
  • The 113th Regiment of the Chinese 38th Division under General Sun Liren captured Twingon, Burma then repulsed a Japanese counterattack that saw heavy casualties on both sides. To the east, Japanese 55th Infantry Division captured Pyinmana. [Main Article | CPC]
  • Chiang Kaishek, Song Meiling, and Joseph Stilwell met at Maymyo, Burma. [Main Article | CPC]
  • General Mikhail Grigoryevich Yefremov committed suicide by shooting himself in the head with a pistol as his Soviet 33rd Army was on the brink of total destruction at Vyazma, Russia. [Main Article | CPC]
  • The 7 surviving ships of Allied convoy PQ-14 arrived at Murmansk, Russia. [Main Article | CPC]
  • Less Carrier Division 5, which detached with screen to head for New Guinea for Operation MO, Akagi and the Striking Force departed Mako in high speed attempted pursuit of the carriers that had launched the Doolittle Raiders which had just struck the Tokyo Bay area on the previous day. [Main Article | Facility | Tabular Record of Movement | CPC]
  • Shokaku departed Mako, Pescadores Islands to participate in Operation MO in the Coral Sea commencing 20 Apr 1942. [Main Article | Facility | Tabular Record of Movement | CPC]
Photo(s) dated 19 Apr 1942
Chiang Kaishek, Song Meiling, and Joseph Stilwell at Maymyo, Burma, 19 Apr 1942, photo 1 of 3Chiang Kaishek, Song Meiling, and Joseph Stilwell at Maymyo, Burma, 19 Apr 1942, photo 2 of 3Chiang Kaishek, Song Meiling, and Joseph Stilwell at Maymyo, Burma, 19 Apr 1942, photo 3 of 3Doolittle raider Robert Hite in Japanese captivity, Japan, Apr 1942
See all photos dated 19 Apr 1942
19 Apr 1943
  • I-168 arrived at Kiska, Aleutian Islands with a cargo of ammunition and mail. [Main Article | Tabular Record of Movement | CPC]
  • Waffen-SS used tanks and other heavy weapons to counter the uprising at the Jewish ghetto in Warsaw, Poland, killing and deporting at least 50,000 during the following 27 days. [Main Article | CPC]
  • At the Bermuda Conference, US and UK representatives discussed Jewish refugee issues in occupied Europe with little result. [Main Article | CPC]
  • Belgian and Jewish underground movements attacked a transport of Jews from the Mechelen transit camp in Belgium. 150 Jews were rescued, but 220 died in the process. It was the only resistance effort during the Holocaust that had attacked a transport train. [CPC]
  • USS Hoe departed for Pearl Harbor, US Territory of Hawaii. [Main Article | CPC]
  • USS Scorpion arrived off Nakaminato, eastern Honshu, Japan; after sundown, she deployed naval mines. [Main Article | CPC]
  • HMS Seraph departed Holy Loch, Scotland, United Kingdom with the body of Glyndwr Michael, dressed as Major William Martin and planted with false documents intended to mislead the Germans. [Main Article | CPC]
British Western Pacific Territories
  • A search party found the remains of Isoroku Yamamoto on Bougainville, Solomon Islands. [Main Article | CPC]
  • Viktor Abakumov was named the head of the newly formed Soviet Main Directorate of Counterintelligence (GUKR) SMERSH; he reported directly to Joseph Stalin. [Main Article | CPC]
  • Joseph Stalin ordered NKVD's UOO to be split into three separate military counterintelligence directorates and to be placed under the NKO, the Navy Commissariat, and the NKVD. [Main Article | CPC]
Photo(s) dated 19 Apr 1943
US Army Privates Mearl Hatfield and Clen C. Campbell operating the portable laundry diesel engine, New Guinea, 19 Apr 1943Wreck of G4M bomber whose crash killed Admiral Yamamoto, Bougainville, Solomon Islands, Apr 1943Canberra sliding down the ways, Bethlehem Steel Company Fore River Shipyard, Quincy, Massachusetts, United States, 19 Apr 1943Launching of Canberra, Bethlehem Steel Company Fore River Shipyard, Quincy, Massachusetts, United States, 19 Apr 1943
See all photos dated 19 Apr 1943
19 Apr 1944
  • Thomas Hitchcock was killed while test-flying a P-51 Mustang aircraft. [Main Article | CPC]
  • USS Finback sank a small Japanese vessel in the Pacific Ocean with her deck gun. [Main Article | CPC]
  • In order to forestall the bombing of the homeland by American B-29 bombers from bases at Guilin and Liuzhou in China and to seize the Beiping-Hong Kong railroad, Field Marshal Shunroku Hata, Commander-in-Chief of the Japanese Army China Expeditionary Force launched the Ichi-Go (Number one) offensive with a force of some 620,000 men, which was the largest force ever assembled by Japan for a single campaign. The main thrust was a powerful drive southwards from Hankou by the 11th Army, designed to link up with a push westward by 23rd Army from Guangdong. [Main Article | CPC]
  • After sundown, the Japanese launched three separate attacks against Anglo-Indian positions near Imphal, India, some supported by medium tanks; none of the attacks achieved their objectives. [Main Article | CPC]
United States
  • Ernest King met with Joseph Rochefort in Washington DC, United States and gave him the command of the Far Eastern Section of the US Navy Office of Naval Intelligence. [Main Article | CPC]
Photo(s) dated 19 Apr 1944
Japanese oil tanker, destroyer, and harbor facilities burning after being attacked by Allied aircraft during Operation Cockpit, Sabang, Sumatra, 19 Apr 1944
19 Apr 1945
  • Goebbels' speech for Hitler's birthday promised that Germany would ultimately prevail in the face of all misfortune and Allied strength. [Main Article | TH]
  • 617 Lancaster, 332 Halifax, and 20 Mosquito aircraft attacked Helgoland, Germany; 3 Halifax bombers were lost. The attack prompted Germany to evacuate civilians from the island to the mainland. [Main Article | CPC]
  • A major attack was launched against Japanese positions on Okinawa, Japan. [Main Article | CPC]
  • A Royal Canadian Air Force Catalina crashed in Labrador in northeastern Canada. In the following operation to rescue the seven crewmen, a US Coast Guard HNS1 helicopter would be deployed to assist. This was one of the first rescue operations undertaken by a rotary wing aircraft. [AC]
  • Aleksandr Vasilevsky was awarded the Order of Victory for the second time. [Main Article | CPC]
  • USS Sennet sank Japanese cargo ship Hagane Maru and an escorting vessel south of Japan, hitting them with 2 of 3 torpedoes fired. [Main Article | CPC]
  • Ivan Bagramyan was awarded the Order of Suvorov for the second time. [Main Article | CPC]
  • USS Hackleback fired an acoustic seeking torpedo at a Japanese patrol vessel south of Japan; the torpedo missed. [Main Article | CPC]
  • USS Cero sank a Japanese patrol vessel south of Japan, hitting her with 1 of 2 torpedoes fired. [Main Article | CPC]
  • A He 162 jet fighter shot down one British fighter, but it was in turn shot down by a British Tempest fighter. [CPC]
  • British troops wiped out 500 Japanese troops at Mount Popa, Burma west of Meitkila after 20 days of heavy fighting. [Main Article | CPC]
French Indochina
  • American B-24 bombers attacked Japanese shipping off Saigon, Indochina. [CPC]
  • US First Army captured Halle and Leipzig in Germany. [TH]
  • British Second Army attacked Bremen, Germany across the Elbe River while Canadian troops captured the Luftwaffe base of Stade, 40 kilometers west of Hamburg, without opposition. [TH]
  • USS Dragonet departed Pearl Harbor, US Territory of Hawaii for her second war patrol. [Main Article | Facility | CPC]
  • US 5th Army reached the Po plateau in Italy. [Main Article | CPC]
  • Italian frogmen piloting British-built Chariot manned-torpedoes sank the uncompleted aircraft carrier Aquila to prevent the Germans from scuttling the ship to block the entrance to Genoa harbour, Italy. [AC, CPC]
Pacific Ocean
  • USS Sunfish sank Japanese ships Kaiko Maru and Taisei Maru south of Hokkaido, Japan, hitting them with 3 of 11 torpedoes fired; she expended all of her torpedoes in this attack. [Main Article | CPC]
  • Lavrentiy Beria ordered the agents of NKVD, NKGB, and SMERSH to sent all German prisoners of war to concentration camps and all Soviet citizens suspected to have helped the Germans to special vetting camps. SMERSH agents would disobey this order, continuing to send their arrestees directly to SMERSH-run prisons in Moscow, Russia. [Main Article | CPC]
United States
  • USS Macabi entered a floating drydock for transit the Chicago Canal to the Mississippi River. [Main Article | CPC]
Photo(s) dated 19 Apr 1945
Liberty section personnel aboard LCM returning to USS Casablanca from Rara Island, off Pitylieu Island, Manus, Admiralty Islands, 19 Apr 1945Men of the US 90th Field Artillery fired their gun at a Japanese position, Balete Pass, Luzon, 19 Apr 1945As Allied troops surrounded Leipzig, Germany, this Volkssturm general committed suicide rather than face surrender, 19 Apr 1945US Army 8-in Howitzer M1 firing on Japanese position, Okinawa, Japan, 19 Apr 1945
See all photos dated 19 Apr 1945
19 Apr 1946
  • USS Makin Island was decommissioned from service at Puget Sound Naval Shipyard in Washington, United States. [Main Article | DS]
United States
  • Escort carrier Wake Island was sold for scrap to the Boston Metals Company of Baltimore, Maryland, United States. [Main Article | CPC]
19 Apr 1947

Photo(s) dated 19 Apr 1947
Lieutenant General James Doolittle being presented a plaque containing a fragment of a wrecked B-25 bomber that had participated in the Doolittle Raid, Miami Beach, Florida, United States, 19 Apr 1947Plaque containing a fragment of a wrecked B-25 bomber that had participated in the Doolittle Raid; this was presented to James Doolittle on 19 Apr 1947James Doolittle and fellow raiders at a reunion in Miami Beach, Florida, United States, 19 Apr 1947
19 Apr 1951

United States
  • Douglas MacArthur addressed the US Congress, noting that Japan had undergone "the greatest reformation recorded in modern history". [Main Article | CPC]
Photo(s) dated 19 Apr 1951
Douglas MacArthur with son Arthur and wife Jean at the US Capitol Building, Washington, DC, after addressing a joint session of Congress, 19 Apr 1951Douglas MacArthur addressing a joint session of Congress, Washington DC, United States, 19 Apr 1951General MacArthurGeneral MacArthur, his son Arthur, and his wife Jean in an open car, Washington DC, United States, 19 Apr 1951
19 Apr 1952

United States
  • USS Wisconsin arrived at Long Beach, California, United States. [Main Article | CPC]
19 Apr 1974
19 Apr 1987
19 Apr 1989
  • USS Iowa suffered an accidental turret explosion at 0955 hours, killing 47. It was the US Navy's worst loss of life during peace time. [Main Article | CPC]
Photo(s) dated 19 Apr 1989
Smoke rising from the No. 2 turret of USS Iowa after accidental explosion, 19 Apr 1989Pieces flying out the No. 2 turret of USS Iowa during the accidental explosion, 19 Apr 1989
19 Apr 1994

Timeline Section Founder: Thomas Houlihan
Contributors: Alan Chanter, C. Peter Chen, Thomas Houlihan, David Stubblebine
Special Thanks: Rory Curtis

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"The raising of that flag on Suribachi means a Marine Corps for the next 500 years."

James Forrestal, Secretary of the Navy, 23 Feb 1945