23 Jul 1883
23 Jul 1892
23 Jul 1901
23 Jul 1914
  • Austria delivered an ultimatum to Serbia which the Serbian government, desperate for peace, accepted. [AC]
23 Jul 1920

French Syria and Lebanon
  • A French army under Henri Gourmand defeated the army of King Faisal's Independent Kingdom of Syria at Maysalun Pass about 12 miles west of Damascus. [AC]
23 Jul 1923
  • Gustav Stresemann, the chairman of the Deutsche People's Party, wrote to Crown Prince Wilhelm suggesting that Germany's priority should be the removal of foreign occupation. Within a month Stresemann would be appointed as the new Chancellor. [AC]
23 Jul 1931

China
  • Song Ziwen survived an assassination attempt at the Shanghai North Railway Station in Shanghai, China. [Main Article | CPC]
23 Jul 1934

Russia
  • The keel of ShCh-317 was laid down at Shipyard 194 named after A. Marti in Leningrad, Russia. [Main Article | CPC]
23 Jul 1936
  • The Committee of National Defence, the Spanish Nationalist Government, met for the first time in Burgos. [AC]
  • Tucker was commissioned into service. [Main Article | CPC]
  • ShCh-313 was commissioned into service. [Main Article | CPC]
23 Jul 1937

Photo(s) dated 23 Jul 1937
Aoba undergoing sea trials, 23 Jul 1937
23 Jul 1938
  • The Namita Detachment of the Japanese 11th Army Group landed east of Jiujiang, Jiangxi, China. [Main Article | CPC]
23 Jul 1939
  • Alerted that Germany and the Soviet Union were engaged in talks once again, British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain began preparations to engage with the Soviets as well. [Main Article | CPC]
23 Jul 1940
  • The British Secretary of War announced that 1,300,000-strong Local Defence Volunteers was to be renamed the Home Guard. [TH]
  • British Chancellor of the Exchequer Sir Kingsley Wood announced the third War Budget, rise in various taxes, and the estimation that war expenditure would be about £3,470,000,000 in the following next year. [CPC]
  • Battle of Britain: German aircraft conducted raids on coastal cities in Britain and deployed naval mines overnight. A German Do 17 bomber of 1/KF1Gr 606 attacked British submarines HMS Narwhal and HMS Truant 125 miles east of Aberdeen, Scotland, sinking the former. [Main Article | CPC]
  • 8,077 Canadian troops bound for Britain departed from Halifax, Nova Scotia on troopships Batory, Antonia, Monarch Of Bermuda, Sobieski, Duchess Of York, and Samaria, escorted by Canadian destroyers HMCS Assiniboine and HMCS Saguenay and British cruiser HMS Emerald. The convoy would arrive safely in Scotland on 1 Aug 1940. [CPC]
  • The British third war budget raised Income Tax to 8 shillings and 6 pence per pound. [AC]
  • Destroyers USS Walke and USS Wainwright arrived at Rio Grande du Sol, Brazil. [CPC]
United Kingdom
  • The British Minister of State for Air Sir Archibald Sinclair reported that the British bomber fleet was capable of dropping 65-70 tons of bombs on Berlin every night for one week. It was a goal to increase that number of 200 tons in the near future. [CPC]
  • Sydney Camm, Chief Designer at Hawker aviation, managed to get the Typhoon and Tornado programmes reinstated with reduced priority after the British Air Ministry had decided to throw all resources at the manufacture and repair of existing types. [Main Article | AC]
23 Jul 1941
  • German troops captured Brest-Litovsk, Byelorussia after a month-long siege. [Main Article | TH]
  • A German Hudson aircraft, while on convoy escort duty, shot down a German aircraft 107 miles west-southwest of Achill Head, Achill Island, Ireland; the German crew was later rescued and interrogated. [CPC]
  • Scharnhorst was detected by British RAF Coastal Command aircraft at La Pallice, La Rochelle, France by the results of a photo reconnaissance flight at 0915 hours. [Main Article | CPC]
  • HMS Manchester suffered an aerial torpedo hit on the port quarter in the Mediterranean Sea while escorting a convoy for Malta. [CPC]
  • Repair ship Akashi operated off Indochina. [Main Article | Tabular Record of Movement | CPC]
  • Douglas Bader shot down a German Bf 109 aircraft. [Main Article | CPC]
United Kingdom
  • A British No. 44 Squadron Hampden bomber, returning from to Waddington, Lincolnshire, England, United Kingdom from a minelaying sortie, crashed into the staff residence of Lincoln Girls High School on Lindum Hill in the nearby city of Lincoln. The crew of four were all killed immediately as was the senior French mistress who died trying to escape from the burning building. Four other members of staff were injured and exploding ammunition peppered the surrounding area, seriously hampering the work of the fire and rescue teams. [AC]
United States
  • In Washington DC, United States, Senator Wendell Willkie (the defeated Republican candidate at the 1940 Presidential election) urged America to give unlimited aid to Britain. [AC]
23 Jul 1942
  • General Maximilian von Weichs was appointed to command Armeegruppe B, relieving General Fedor von Bock. [Main Article | TH]
  • Adam Czerniaków passed away. [Main Article | CPC]
  • Indian troops launched an attack on Deir el Shein near El Alamein, Egypt in failure. [Main Article | CPC]
  • Martin Bormann relayed Adolf Hitler's orders to Alfred Rosenberg, noting that the Slavic population in occupied Eastern Europe were to be nothing more than laborers of Germany, thus they did not need to be fed more food than absolutely necessary, and they were not to be educated. [CPC]
  • Italian transport Rosolino Pilo, escorted by two destroyers and two smaller vessels, safely arrived at Benghazi, Libya after a three-day trip from Brindisi, Italy. [CPC]
  • German submarine U-129 sank US ship Onondaga 5 miles north of Cayo Guillermo, Cuba at 2222 hours; 20 were killed, 14 survived. [Main Article | CPC]
  • German submarine U-752 sank British ship Garmula 200 miles southwest of Freetown, British West Africa; 21 were killed, 67 survived. [Main Article | CPC]
Australian New Guinea
  • Vice Admiral Gunichi Mikawa of the Japanese 8th Fleet based at Rabaul, New Britain, Bismarck Archipelago repeated his 21 Jul 1942 request for more destroyers. [Main Article | CPC]
Australian Papua
  • Japanese troops engaged troops of the Papuan Infantry Battalion at Awala, Australian Papua on the Kokoda Trail. [Main Article | CPC]
Hawaii
  • Barbers Point Naval Air Station: First movies for all personnel, in mess hall. [Main Article | DS]
Poland
  • Treblinka Concentration Camp in Poland began mass extermination by gassing; 700,000 would be killed within the following one year. [Main Article | Facility | CPC]
Russia
  • Führer Directive Number 45 was issued, ordering Operation Brunswick, the capture of the Caucasus region; Armeegruppe A would move through Maikop and Grozny to the Black Sea and Armeegruppe B would take Stalingrad on the drive to Astrakhan. Meanwhile, in southern Russia, German 13th Panzer Division, German 22nd Panzer Division, and Czechoslovakian Mobile Slovak Division captured the Kommolomny Bridge over the Don River at Rostov-on-Don. [Main Article | TH, CPC]
  • Aleksandr Vasilevsky was named a representative of the Soviet Stavka at Stalingrad, Russia. [Main Article | CPC]
United States
  • The Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS) in Washington DC, United States, fearful that the completion of the Japanese airfield on Guadacanal in the Solomon Islands might signal a renewed enemy advance in the South Pacific that could threaten US aid to New Zealand and Australia, agreed to Marine deployments to secure the lines of communication (Operation Watchtower). [Main Article | AC]
Photo(s) dated 23 Jul 1942
French-built Canon de 155 C modèle 1917 Schneider howitzer in service with 212 Battery, 64th Medium Regiment, British Royal Artillery, North Africa, 23 Jul 1942
23 Jul 1943
  • German leader Fritz Sauckel ordered improvements in the living conditions for Eastern European workers in Germany who performed their functions well. [Main Article | CPC]
  • USS Gar arrived at Fremantle, Australia, ending her eighth war patrol. [Main Article | CPC]
  • US Navy PBM Mariner aircraft attacked a German submarine in the Caribbean Sea, possibly U-759. [Main Article | CPC]
  • Charles J. Badger was commissioned into service. [Main Article | CPC]
British Western Pacific Territories
  • Destroyer Yukikaze led a troop transport run to Kolombangara, New Georgia, Solomon Islands. [Main Article | CPC]
Hawaii
  • Barbers Point Naval Air Station: Parachute building turned over to station. [Main Article | DS]
Italy
  • Italian Air Force established plans to re-establish the 1st Air Force Assault Regiment "Amedeo d'Aosta" for possible use as guerrilla fighters in Sicily, Italy, but the plans would not come to fruition. [CPC]
Russia
  • Soviet forces launched the Belgorod-Bogodukhov Offensive Operation toward Belgorod, Russia. [Main Article | CPC]
Photo(s) dated 23 Jul 1943
British Lancaster bombers of No 50 Squadron RAF flying in loose formation over Lincolnshire, England, UK, 23 Jul 1943Artur Axmann, General Kunze, and Major General Philipp (school commandant) touring an artillery school at Jüterbog, Germany, 23 Jul 1943
23 Jul 1944
  • Hitler required that the Wehrmacht use the Hitler Gruß, the Nazi salute, in the aftermath of July Plot. [Main Article | TH]
  • Soviet troops captured Pskov, Byelorussia. [Main Article | TH]
  • After dark, a large group of British bombers attacked Kiel, Germany; the attack lasted through midnight into the next date. The German fighters summoned to intercept went after the decoy force rather than the main force. [Main Article | CPC]
  • USS Astoria arrived at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States. [Main Article | CPC]
China
  • In response to the American request for Chiang Kaishek to accept communist forces in his army, Chiang expressed that he would accept the request only if the Nationalist reserve forces would be off-limits to Joseph Stilwell, and if American Lend-Lease supplies would be controlled by Chiang. This counteroffer was to be rejected in the following month. [Main Article | CPC]
France
  • The 1st Canadian Army (General H. D. G. Crerar) became operational in Normandy, France. [AC]
Germany
  • The German Gestapo arrested the head of German Abwehr Wilhelm Canaris. [Main Article | CPC]
Italy Photo(s) dated 23 Jul 1944
Map depicting the Allied attempt to expand the beachhead at Normandy, France, 1-24 Jul 1944
23 Jul 1945
  • USS Blenny reported sinking two small Japanese craft with the deck gun in the South China Sea off Malaya. [Main Article | CPC]
  • In Moscow, Russia, the Politburo approved the sentence of death by hanging of turncoat General Andrei Vlasov who had raised two divisions of Russian volunteers to fight for the Germans. [AC]
  • American aviators reported the presence of barrage balloons 12,000 feet above Hitachi, Japan. [Main Article | CPC]
  • Men landed by submarine USS Barb destroyed a train in Karafuto, Japan (Kurile Islands). [Main Article | CPC]
  • USS Sea Robin sank a small Japanese vessel with her deck gun in the East China Sea. [Main Article | CPC]
France
  • The trial against Marshal Philippe Pétain began at Palais de Justice, Paris, France. [Main Article | CPC]
Hawaii
  • Barbers Point Naval Air Station: Air Group 10 departed. [Main Article | DS]
Japan
  • Light carrier Hosho began preparations to depart Kure, Japan for Moji, Japan. [Main Article | Tabular Record of Movement | CPC]
  • USS Springer completed her patrol of the Kii Channel between Honshu and Shikoku islands of Japan and set sail for Guam, Mariana Islands. [Main Article | CPC]
  • I-400 departed Mutsu, Japan. [Main Article | CPC]
  • I-401 departed Mutsu, Japan. Shortly after, she was fired upon by friendly Japanese coastal artillery on the island of Hokkaido; she was able to submerge and escaped without damage. [Main Article | CPC]
US Pacific Islands Photo(s) dated 23 Jul 1945
Churchill, Truman, and Stalin shaking hands during the Potsdam Conference, Germany, 23 Jul 1945, photo 1 of 3Churchill, Truman, and Stalin shaking hands during the Potsdam Conference, Germany, 23 Jul 1945, photo 3 of 3Winston Churchill, Harry Truman, and Joseph Stalin at the Potsdam Conference, Germany, 23 Jul 1945William Leahy presiding over a US staff meeting during the Potsdam Conference, Germany, 23 Jul 1945
See all photos dated 23 Jul 1945
23 Jul 1946
  • USS Sargent Bay was placed in reserve. [Main Article | CPC]
  • Polish destroyer Garland was decommissioned from service and was returned to Britain. [Main Article | CPC]
Photo(s) dated 23 Jul 1946
USS Sea Cat at Mare Island Naval Shipyard, California, United States, 23 Jul 1946
23 Jul 1951
23 Jul 1953
  • Nikolaus von Falkenhorst was released from imprisonment due to health reasons. [Main Article | CPC]
23 Jul 1954

United States
  • USS Rock departed San Diego, California, United States. [Main Article | CPC]
Photo(s) dated 23 Jul 1954
USS Rock departing San Diego, California, United States for the western Pacific Ocean, 23 Jul 1954
23 Jul 1955

Timeline Section Founder: Thomas Houlihan
Contributors: Alan Chanter, C. Peter Chen, Thomas Houlihan, David Stubblebine
Special Thanks: Rory Curtis




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F4U-4 Corsair fighters of US Marine Corps squadron VMF-212 aboard USS Rendova, 1951; seen in Feb 1952 issue of US Navy publication Naval Aviation News




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"No bastard ever won a war by dying for his country. You win the war by making the other poor dumb bastard die for his country!"

George Patton, 31 May 1944