75 mm How M1 Field Gun
|Country of Origin||United States|
|Barrel Length||1,380.000 mm|
|Ammunition Weight||6.40 kg|
|Rate of Fire||5 rounds/min|
|Muzzle Velocity||381 m/s|
Contributor: C. Peter Chenww2dbaseThe 75-mm Pack Howitzer M1 artillery pieces were designed in the United States in the 1920s with transportability in mind. The tube-and-breech artillery pieces were placed atop the M1 carriage with wooden wheels. They had a hydropneumatic recoil system, with recoil buffer and recuperator located under the barrel. They could be broken down into several pieces so that they could each be transported by six pack animals if the terrain was unsuitable for the M1 carriages. Each pack animal load ranged between 73 and 107 kilograms each; they were:
- Breech and wheels
- Top sleigh and cradle
- Bottom sleigh and recoil mechanism
- Front trail
- Rear trail and axle.
Although the 75-mm Pack Howizer M1 artillery pieces were made standard for the United States Army in 1927, they were produced in very low numbers; by 1940, only 91 were in service. In Sep 1940, however, production ramped up as the United States prepared for the potential involved in WW2. These post-Sep 1940 pieces differed from their predecessors by being placed atop M8 carriages, which had metal wheels with pneumatic tires. These new variants were also slightly changed so that they could be broken down to nine parts instead of only six, so that they could be dropped by parachutes.
A few of the M3 variants were also built, which were classified as field guns as opposed to pack howitzers, though only 349 were built. The more commonly seen pack howitzer variant had a total production count of 4,939 between Sep 1940 and Dec 1944.
During WW2, 75-mm Pack Howitzer M1 artillery pieces were used by both the United States Army as well as the United States Marine Corps; those used by the US Army were typically found in airborne units. Other Allies also received some examples of the 75-mm pack howitzers. 826 of them were sent to the United Kingdom and the Commonwealth forces, 637 to China, 68 to France, and 60 to various Latin American countries. Additionally, China also received 125 of the field howitzer variants.
After the war, they received the new designation M116.
Source: Wikipedia. ww2dbase
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James Forrestal, Secretary of the Navy, 23 Feb 1945