Contributor: C. Peter Chen
ww2dbaseThe German Navy was successful in hunting Allied shipping in the Altantic Ocean in the month of Mar 1943, sinking more than 70 ships. Although German submarine activity decreased in Apr 1943 as many of the submarines active in Mar were back in their home ports for repairs and replenishment, the month still saw more than 30 sinkings of Allied ships in the Atlantic Ocean. In May 1943, however, the table completely turned in favor of the Allies. Between 29 Apr and 6 May, German submarines attacked Allied convoy ONS 5 in the North Atlantic, sinking 12 ships; however, the convoy's escorts were able to sink 6 submarines and damage 7 others, making it the first convoy to inflict heavy damage among the attacking wolfpack. Later in the month, Allied convoy SC 130 was unsuccessfully attacked with the loss of 5 submarines. Although May 1943 represented the month in which German Navy had its greatest strength of operational submarines (240 total; 118 on patrol at sea during this month), it was only able to sink about 30 Allied ships in the Atlantic Ocean, meaning that the German Navy was only able to maintain the low rate of sinking from the previous month rather than improving it. This alarmed German Admiral Karl DÃ¶nitz, who scaled back submarine operations on 24 May in order to regroup and re-evaluate tactics. The Allies would attribute their success to increased number of vessels available for escort duties and technological advances in anti-submarine weaponry.
ww2dbaseThe German submarines would never regain the level of success it previously achieved.
Last Major Update: May 2011
Black May Interactive Map
Black May Timeline
|12 Mar 1943Â||The U-130 (Oberleutnant zur See Siegfried Keller) was sunk in the Atlantic Ocean west of the Azores by depth charges from the destroyer USS Champlin (DD-601). All 53 on board were lost.|
|12 Mar 1943Â||In the Atlantic Ocean, the drifting wreck of the Liberty Ship Thomas Hooker (suffered structural damage during a hurricane before dawn on 6 Mar 1943; crew abandoned ship and took to the boats) was located by German submarine U-653 (KapitÃ¤nleutnant Gerhard Feiler) which hit her with two torpedoes at 0209 hours and 0433 hours. The ship sank by the stern two minutes after the second torpedo hit.|
|21 Apr 1943Â||Allied convoy ONS 5 consisted of 42 ships departed from Liverpool, England, United Kingdom for a 3-week journey to Halifax, Nova, Scotia, Canada; it was escorted by 7 warships (2 destroyers, 1 frigate, and 4 corvettes) and supported by 2 trawlers and 1 tanker. The convoy was under the command of J. Kenneth Brook of the British Royal Navy Reserve; he was aboard Norwegian freighter Rena. The convoy was to grow in size from mid-journey rendezvous with other ships departing from other ports.|
|24 Apr 1943Â||In the North Atlantic, Escorts of Allied convoy ONS 5 spotted and sank German submarine U-710 10 miles ahead of the convoy.|
|27 Apr 1943Â||Admiral DÃ¶nitz issued a new order to his submarine commanders, instructing that they were to cross the Bay of Biscay submerged during the night and to resurface during the day only long enough to recharge their batteries. This proved something of a mistake for the Germans as it permitted some 12 RAF Squadrons to contribute to daylight anti-submarine operations.|
|28 Apr 1943Â||German submarine U-650 sighted Allied convoy ONS 5 in the North Atlantic at 0800 hours. During the day U-375, U-386, U-528, and U-537 sailed toward U-650 and began planning the attack. Radio chatter between these submarines alerted commander of ONS 5 escorts Captain Peter Gretton.|
|29 Apr 1943Â||Starting at midnight, German submarines U-650, U-375, U-386, U-528, and U-532 attacked Allied convoy ONS 5 in the North Atlantic. They scored no hits until around 1200 hours when US freighter McKeesport sunk by a torpedo from U-528; three attacking submarines were damaged during the attacks and were forced to return to base to receive repairs. Upon learning the attacks, the British Admiralty dispatched additional destroyers to reinforce the escort force.|
|4 May 1943Â||German submarine U-625 spotted Allied convoy ONS 5 in the North Atlantic at about 1200 hours local time. Several German submarines gathered and began attacking at dusk and lasted through the night into the next date, sinking 7 ships (British freighters L'Orient, North Britain, Harbury, Harpurley, Bristol City, and Wentworth; US freighter West Maximus). U-630 was lost during the attacks.|
|5 May 1943Â||German submarines continued to attack Allied convoy ONS 5 in the North Atlantic, sinking British freighter Dolius and US freighter West Makadet during the day; German submarine U-358 was damaged during the attacks. After dark, German submarines lost contact with the convoy, sinking British freighters Selvistan and Gharinda and Norwegian freighter Bonde, but the radar-equipped Allied escorts continued to fight back, sinking U-638, U-125, and U-531.|
|6 May 1943Â||British corvette HMS Loosestrife sank German submarine U-638 with depth charges, which was attempting to attack Allied convoy ONS 5 in the North Atlantic; two other submarines were also destroyed on this date. Realizing the convoy was now well escorted, Admiral Karl DÃ¶nitz ordered the attacks on this convoy to cease.|
|7 May 1943Â||Hitler announced in a speech to Reichsleiters and Gauleiters that submarine warfare was to be stepped up as the surest way to cut enemy supply lines, even as the German submarine fleet was being pounded in the Atlantic Ocean.|
|7 May 1943Â||Jaguar, Greif, and MÃ¶we completed their escort mission for minelayers in the North Sea.|
|11 May 1943Â||Allied convoy SC 130 (37 ships) departed Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada for Liverpool, England, United Kingdom.|
|18 May 1943Â||After sundown, German submarine U-304 spotted Allied convoy SC 130 in the North Atlantic.|
|19 May 1943Â||In the North Atlantic, as German submarines began to form an attack formation against Allied convoy SC 130, Liberator bombers of No. 120 Squadron RAF pre-emptively struck them, breaking up the attack. The convoy was met by additional 3 frigates and 1 sloop as reinforcement.|
|24 May 1943Â||After suffering many submarine sinkings during May 1943, German Admiral Karl DÃ¶nitz ordered a temporary halt to submarine operations in the North Atlantic to regroup and re-evaluate tactics.|
|24 May 1943Â||While returning from patrol, the Italian submarine Leonardo da Vinci was intercepted by the British destroyer HMS Active (H 14) 300 miles west of Vigo, Spain. Working with the frigate HMS Ness (K 219) HMS Active subjected the submarine to an intense depth-charge attack and the Leonardo da Vinci was destroyed. There were no survivors.|
|26 May 1943Â||Allied convoy SC 130 arrived in Liverpool, England, United Kingdom without losses despite German submarine attacks en route.|
|31 May 1943Â||Adolf Hitler expressed extreme dismay at the withdrawal of German submarines from the American coast.|
|5 Jun 1943Â||German submarine U-217 was attacked and sunk by a TBF Avenger torpedo bomber assisted by a Wildcat fighter from escort carrier USS Bogue.|
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General Douglas MacArthur at Leyte, 17 Oct 1944
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