Victory-class Merchant Vessel
|Builder||Six shipyards in the United States|
|Displacement||15200 tons standard|
|Armament||1x127mm gun, 1x76mm AA gun, 8x20mm Oerlikon cannons|
|Cargo Hold Depth||11.5m|
Contributor: C. Peter Chen
This article refers to the entire Victory-class; it is not about an individual vessel.
ww2dbaseVictory Ships were officially named on 28 Apr 1943. The first ship completed was the SS United Victory which was launched from Oregon Shipbuilding Corporation on 12 Jan 1944, followed by another 15 within the next four months. Production ramped up beginning in the second half of 1944, however, resulting in a total of 531 built by the end of the Pacific War. Most of them were equipped with weapons, but a number of them were built with military applications in mind; this sub-type received its own designation as the Haskell-class attack transports. Most of the Victory Ships were manned by the civilian sailors of the United States Merchant Marine, with armament operated by men of the Navy Armed Guard of the United States Navy; Haskell-class attack transports were considered purely military vessels, thus they were completely crewed by Navy sailors. Additional three Victory Ships built in 1946 increased total production count to 534. Detailed production numbers are as follows.
|VC2-S-AP2||With 6,000-horsepower steam engines||272|
|VC2-S-AP3||With 8,500-horsepower steam engines||141|
|VC2-M-AP4||With diesel engines||1|
|VC2-S-AP5||US Navy Haskell-class attack transports||117|
|VC2-S-AP7||Post war models built for the Alcoa Steamship Company||3|
ww2dbaseThe Victory Ships were built by six shipyards in the United States. They were as follows.
|Bethlehem Fairfield||Baltimore, Maryland||VC2-S-AP2||93|
|California Shipbuilding||Wilmington, California||VC2-S-AP3||32|
|Kaiser Shipbuilding||Vancouver, Washington||VC2-S-AP5||31|
|Oregon Shipbuilding||Portland, Oregon||VC2-S-AP3||99|
|Permanente/Kaiser Yard #1||Richmond, California||VC2-S-AP3||10|
|Permanente/Kaiser Yard #2||Richmond, California||VC2-S-AP5||22|
ww2dbaseThe Victory Ship design benefited from the operating experiences of the Liberty Ships. Compared to the Liberty Ships, Victory Ships were several knots faster, thus being able to reach their destinations faster, thus minimizing the risk of being intercepted by German surface and submarine raiders. Because they were placed into service after the Battle of Atlantic had largely already been won by the Allies, however, only two of them were sunk by German submarines, so the speed advantage in terms of minimizing threat would be only theoretical. Another improvement on the Victory Ships were the stronger hulls, which allowed them to endure the rigors of the high seas, particularly the extreme cold weathers of the north which had fractured the hulls of Liberty Ships. In the Pacific Ocean, three of them were sunk by kamikaze special attacks in Apr 1945.
ww2dbaseVictory Ships remained in use for years to come, participating in the Vietnam War and several National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) missions, for example.
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General Douglas MacArthur at Leyte, 17 Oct 1944