Germany's Surrender

7 May 1945


ww2dbaseEven before Berlin, Germany had fallen to Soviet troops, the newly appointed German President Karl D├Ânitz sent General Alfred Jodl to negotiate a peace agreement with Allied Supreme Commander Dwight Eisenhower. D├Ânitz, who wished to continue the war against the Soviets, attempted to establish an armistice with the western Allies so that he could focus on the Soviet front. Eisenhower refused such an arrangement. Weeks before Eisenhower already received words that various German commanders had already attempted to surrender, though conditionally. One came through Switzerland by an unknown individual codenamed "Wolff"; all it was known was that "Wolff" was a representative from the SS. On 26 Apr, Heinrich Himmler, through Swedish Count Folke Bernadotte, attempted to contact Winston Churchill to negotiate surrender terms, again attempting to surrender the western front only while allowing Germany to keep fighting the Soviets. In all incidences, Eisenhower adamantly refused to negotiate unless an unconditional surrender on all fronts was achieved. Later on, Himmler tried to write a letter directly to Eisenhower, offering to surrender Germany to the western Allies on the condition that he would not be turned over to the Soviets, but the letter was intercepted by German authorities; Field Marshal Wilhelm Keitel quoted this action by Himmler showed Himmler's "little insight... into the political situation", and Himmler was a "burden" to Germany.

ww2dbaseWhile the political leaders in Berlin made their negotiation attempts, the German troops began to surrender en masse. The first great surrender occurred in Italy, where the local German commander approached General Harold Alexander on 29 Apr; all fighting ceased in Italy on 2 May. On the same day, commander of the German Army Group G north of Italy began communicating with Major General Jacob Devers, and their surrender was effective beginning on 6 May. Further to the north, Field Marshal Busch and General Lindemann started to speak to Eisenhower's headquarters regarding the surrender of their troops in Hamburg area and Denmark, though they feared the reaction of the fanatical SS units that were still present in their region; these troops surrendered on 4 May after Admiral Hans-Georg Friedeburg, representing President D├Ânitz's office, surrendered the entire northwestern region of the country to General Bernard Montgomery. In Berlin, Joseph Goebbels attempted to offer a cease-fire or conditional surrender to Soviet Marshal Georgy Zhukov; similarly the offer was refused by Zhukov under direct orders of Joseph Stalin not to accept anything less than an unconditional surrender. At the Berlin Zoo, a flak tower was one of the few remaining strongholds in Berlin. Several officers arranged for a meeting for cease-fire negotiations, but as they walked out under the banner of truce of a white flag, several German soldiers ambushed the talks and killed the German officers while wounding one of the Soviet officers.

ww2dbaseAfter a day of failed negotiations, Lieutenant General Helmuth Weidling crossed the front lines and officially surrendered the German capital of Berlin to the Soviets.

ww2dbaseOn 5 May, all German submarines were ordered by Admiral Hans-Georg von Friedeburg to return to port.

ww2dbaseThe German troops in the Netherlands held on with more resilience. Holding the strategically important dams, the German garrison formed a fortification that would be difficult to conquer, but they knew the end was near. Eisenhower feared that a major advance into the Netherlands would lead to a brutal retribution on the Dutch people by the German troops there, and any further defensive flooding would ruin more of the farmlands that the Dutch people desperately need to avoid starvation. On 30 Apr, German High Commissioner of the Netherlands Arthur Seyss-Inquart contacted the Allied commanders to negotiate a truce. Although the German garrison at the Netherlands did not surrender until Germany as a country formally surrendered, Seyss-Inquart allowed Allied relief to enter their territory to aid the Dutch people. In return, Eisenhower gave them word that they would be cordially treated as prisoners of war when Berlin would capitulate.

ww2dbaseAfter much delay, D├Ânitz finally agreed to an unconditional surrender of Germany on all fronts. At 0241 on 7 May 1945, Alfred Jodl signed the instrument of surrender on behalf of D├Ânitz in the French city of Reims. Eisenhower told his German counterpart:

You will, officially and personally, be held responsible if the terms of this surrender are violated, including its provisions for German commanders to appear in Berlin at the moment set by the Russian high command to accomplish formal surrender to that government. That is all.

ww2dbaseJodl saluted Eisenhower upon the end of that statement, and left Reims, France. The cessation of fighting took place at 2301 the next day.

ww2dbaseJoseph Stalin, the leader of the Soviet Union, was unhappy to see the surrender ceremony taken place outside of the area conquered by Soviet forces, thus demanded, and got, a separate surrender ceremony in Berlin. This took place on the following day, 9 May, with British Air Chief Marshal Arthur Tedder representing the western Allies. Zhukov was very much the star of this separate ceremony, and made every effort to behave as a proud conqueror. When Keitel signed the document, removed his monocle, and began to make a formal speech marking the occasion, Zhukov interrupted Keitel, announcing that all Soviet representatives at the ceremony were free to go as the document had already been made official.

ww2dbaseEisenhower sent the following message to his troops upon the German surrender:

ww2dbaseThe route you have traveled through hundreds of miles is marked by the graves of former comrades. Each of the fallen died as a member of the team to which you belong, bound together by a common love of liberty and a refusal to submit to enslavement. Our common problems of the immediate and distant future can be best solved in the same conceptions of co-operation and devotion to the cause of human freedom as have made this Expeditionary Force such a mighty engine of righteous destruction.

ww2dbaseLet us have no part in the profitless quarrels in which other men will inevitably engage as to what country, what service, won the European war. Every man, every woman, of every nation here represented has served to the outcome. This we shall remember-and in doing so we shall be revering each honored grave, and be sending comfort to the loved ones of comrades who could not live to see this day.

ww2dbaseAt the conclusion of the war in Europe 40 million people died, half of which were civilians. As Europe celebrated the end of the brutal war, people continue to die in Asia, where the war would waged on for months more. The 3,000,000 Americans in Europe under the command of Eisenhower were entered into an elaborate point system based on length of service, length of time on foreign soil, decorations, parenthood, and age; those with enough points would be sent home, while others either remained in Europe as part of the Allied occupation forces or sent to the Pacific War. Carl Spaatz and Courtney Hodges were among the generals who were transferred to the Japanese front; some were transferred even before the conclusion of the action in Europe.

Vadim Birstein, SMERSH
Dwight Eisenhower, Crusade in Europe
Wilhelm Keitel, In the Service of the Reich
Anthony Read and David Fisher, The Fall of Berlin

Last Major Update: May 2006

Germany's Surrender Interactive Map


Churchill waving to crowds at Whitehall, London, England, United Kingdom on the day he announced the war with Germany had been won, 8 May 1945American soldier guarding a corner of a German prisoners of war camp near Remagen, Germany, 25 Apr 1945Captured German officers and men marching under loose American supervision, Austria, 1945Soviet soldier with PPD submachine gun with a column of German prisoners of war, Berlin, Germany, May 1945
See all 68 photographs of Germany's Surrender


Map depicting post-European War Allied occupation zones

Germany's Surrender Timeline

27 Apr 1945 The western Allies refused to consider Himmler's attempts at negotiation for peace.
2 May 1945 In a report to the House of Commons the British Prime Minister Winston Churchill announced the unconditional surrender of the German land, sea and air forces, commanded by Colonel-General Heinrich von Wietinghof-Scheel, Commander-in Chief South-West Command and Commander-in Chief of Army Group C. The instrument of surrender signed at the Allied Forces Headquarters at Caserta on Sunday afternoon, 29 Apr 1945, by two German plenipotentiaries and Lieutenant-General W. D. Morgan, Chief of Staff at Allied Forces Headquarters would see the surrender of all German forces in Northern Italy to the Isonzo River, in the North-East, and the Austrian provinces of Salzburg, Vorarlberg, anf the Tyrol plus portions of Carinthia and Styria, Hostilities would end at 12 o'clock GMT on Wednesday, 2 May 1945.
4 May 1945 German forces in Denmark, the Netherlands, and northwestern Germany surrendered to British Field Marshal Bernard Montgomery, to be in effect at 0800 hours on the next day. Meanwhile, in Germany, US Ninth Army accepted surrender of German Ninth and Twelfth Armies and US Third Army accepted the surrender by Feldmarschall Paul von Kleist.
5 May 1945 German General Blaskowitz surrendered all German forces in the Netherlands at the Hotel de Wereld in Wageningen to Canadian General Charles Foulkes. In Denmark, the German occupation forces surrendered. In Italy, German Armeegruppe C surrendered.
7 May 1945 General Jodl signed the unconditional surrender of all German forces to the Allies, to take effect on the following day, at Eisenhower's headquarters near Rheims, France; the Soviets witnessed the surrender at Rheims, but did not recognise the surrender until another document was signed in the Soviet-conquered territory. On the same day, German occupation forces in Norway surrendered.
8 May 1945 Britain marked VE (Victory in Europe) Day with scenes of great public celebration and services of thanksgiving. In France, the German garrisons in coastal strongholds finally surrendered. In Berlin, Germany, Marshal Zhukov accepted the German surrender, which was to take effect on 11 May. Also on this date, German troops in Czechoslovakia surrendered.
9 May 1945 The German garrisons at Dunkerque (12,000 men), La Rochelle, Lorient, and Saint-Nazaire surrendered.
9 May 1945 The German garrisons in the Channel Islands surrendered.
9 May 1945 Victory was celebrated in Moscow, Russia where two million people watched a parade and firework display.
9 May 1945 Armeegruppe Kurland surrendered in Latvia.
9 May 1945 The 20,000-strong German garrison in the Greek islands surrendered.
10 May 1945 The surrender of Germany officially took effect at 0001 hours on this date.
10 May 1945 The German garrison in Dunkerque, France surrendered to a Czechoslovak armoured brigade, two days after the surrender of the main German army in its homeland.
11 May 1945 Various German units in Czechoslovakia, Dunkirk in France, and the Aegean Sea islands surrendered.
12 May 1945 German troops on Crete, Greece surrendered.
13 May 1945 The USAAF 306th Bomb Group flying from RAF Thurleigh sent 30 aircraft to Barth airfield in Germany to pick up and evacuate 603 American POWs to Lessay, France.
15 May 1945 Croatian troops that surrendered to British forces in Austria were handed over to Yugoslavian partisans, resulting in the murder of over 110,000, including women and children.
23 May 1945 The Allies dissolved Karl D├Ânitz's government.
1 Jun 1945 Knowing the fate that would await them at the hands of the Soviets, a pitched battle broke out between British troops and the 28,000 strong Cossack Corps (White Russians who had always opposed the Communists and had been fighting for the Germans), when it was announced that they were to be repatriated to the Russian zone of Austria. Some 700 Cossacks and their families were killed by the British, trampled to death or commit suicide. Almost all the Cossacks who were sent back disappeared without trace.
10 Jul 1945 United Kingdom, United States, and the Soviet Union agreed to include France in the administration of Berlin, Germany.

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Visitor Submitted Comments

1. Stephen jones says:
16 Mar 2006 05:33:48 PM

In a reference to the surrender of Army Group G. You mention General Devers. You say that General Devers was a Major General in fact he was a full general at the time. He was promoted to General in Mar of 45.

2. Commenter identity confirmed BILL says:
12 Apr 2009 02:54:18 PM

Everyone has seen Red Square and the Kremlin, they are the main symbol of Russia. But did you know: The Stars that are on top of the Kremlin wrigh more than a ton, but can rotate as weathercock whenever the wind blows. They are made from special Ruby Glass and have two layers of the glass making the stars look red in any weather. The power consumption of each star is 5 kWt They were damaged during World War II and were refurbished later.
3. Commenter identity confirmed BILL says:
13 Apr 2009 04:55:43 PM

Russian Money: 1 Dollar for 63 Russian Copecks or 1 American Dollar for 0.63 Russian Ruble. A construction worker or a office worker make about $200.00 per month that's on todays Russian Market..
4. Commenter identity confirmed BILL says:
6 May 2009 07:01:46 PM

Total Wehrmacht Casualties 1939 to 1945 were over 10,340,728. Taken together, these numbers should not represent an exact view, but a more general one in which the losses and hardships can easily be seen. We will never really know the exact numbers.
5. Commenter identity confirmed BILL says:
8 May 2009 05:10:57 PM

Total Casualties of World War II for the Allies and the Axis.
Military 24,789,500
Civilian 54,523,800
Total 79,263,300
We will never really know the exact loss of human life.
6. Commenter identity confirmed BILLAnonymous says:
13 May 2009 04:42:21 PM

Hallowed Grounds: Around the world 125,000 American military men and women are buried on foreign soil. Created by the U.S. Government after World War I and World War II, these cemeteries are locatrd in England, France,the Netherlands,Luxembourg,Belgium, Italy,Tunisia and the Philippines.
Based on experiences of previous wars,pensions for service in World War II will still be paid into the 2030's. The last pensions for dependents of World War II veterans will probably be paid in the 2050's. Hundreds of thousands of veterans sustained wounds and injuries during their service, that left them physically or emotionally crippled for the rest of their lives. You pay for a war long after the joy of the victory celebrations have faded from memory.
7. Commenter identity confirmed BILL says:
18 May 2009 10:04:06 AM

On September 12, 1990 The United States, the Soviet Union, France and Great Britian conclude a peace treaty with the German Federal Republic (West Germany) and the German Democratic Republic (East Germany). World War II is formally over. With the end of the Cold War, the World War II era comes to an end. The events of the summer of 1914, which precipitated World War I and then led to World War II, finally comes to a end. This took the greater part of the Twentieth Century (1914-1990)
8. Commenter identity confirmed BILL says:
18 May 2009 11:01:05 AM

World War II killed more people than commonly thought estimate the total death toll to be near 100,000,000 people. However,the number of people killed or died as a consequence of World War II cannot be determined with any absolute degree of accuracy. We will never really know the data keeps changing.
Total Allied Losses both Civilian and Military: 66,479,800

Total Axis Losses both Civilian and Military: 78,173,400

And then there is the problem of losses in the Third World, the millions of civilians who starved to death in India and Indochina as a result of global shipping shortages are not usually listed as victims of the war, but most certainly are. There deaths,albeit small,due to military operations in Iran and Iraq as well as amoung neutral merchant seamem. Accidental air attacks on Switzerland and Sweden. Nor do the figures include people in many countries killed during industrial accidents. 300,000 Americans died in such acccidents during the war, and then there are people who died after the war, often long after from lingering effects of wounds or privations, and from civil disorders, insurrections and anti-colonical revolutions engendered by the war. Its not unreasonable to say a 100 million people perished as a result of World War II. This was about 5 percent of the Earth's population at the time.
9. Commenter identity confirmed BILL says:
26 May 2009 05:02:48 PM

What did it all cost? this only an estimate, but its in the Billions.
England: Pounds Sterling 20,500,000,000
U.S.A. Dollars 305,000,000,000
U.S.S.R. Ruble 582,000,000,000
Germany Reichmarks 414,000,000,000
Japan Yen 174,000,000,000
Italy Lire 278,500,000,000

You can add 50,000,000,000 to the cost of Lend-Lease, I don't know if this is in the total cost of World War II for the U.S.A.
If you add all Nations involved it would go into the Trillions!
10. Commenter identity confirmed BILL says:
26 May 2009 05:29:30 PM

A total of 61 Nations took part in World War II, that's about 1.7 Billion people! or 3/4th of the Earth's population at the time.
110,000,000 Million, were mobilized.
World War II was the most terrible war in all history,unbelievable destruction and its human cost.
In the aftermath, the two super-powers the USA and the USSR faced each other in a Cold War that would last for decades.
11. Commenter identity confirmed BILL says:
14 Jun 2009 07:16:24 PM

Did you know: Displaying the swastika symbol
is forbidden in Germany today.
In Hitler's Nazi Germany, a copy of Hitler's
"Mein Kamph" was presented to all married couples. Today in Germany, it is illegal to buy or sell a copy of "Mein Kamph".
12. Bill says:
19 Oct 2009 09:14:24 AM

"To The Victor Belong The Spoils"

German Wartime Technology, fueled some of the
greatest scientific advances of the modern
By the time the war ended, Germany had 138 types of guided missles in various stages of
development plus hundreds of weapons systems
As well as Radar, Radio, Wire, Continuous Radio Waves,Light and Sound Beams, Magnetics,
and Optics.
One of the largest hauls of Secret/Classified
Information taken by the Allies, came from
the Laboratories and Plants of IG Farben.
The enormous IG Farben complex located in
Frankfurt, Germany housed records of German
Research was "Miraculously" spared during
World War II Bombing.
The vaults contained information on Liquid
and Solid Fuels, Metallurgy, Synthetic Rubber
Textiles, Chemicals, Plastics, drugs and Dyes
"The Opinion of History Remains Divided" The
Once Wartime Allies rushed to capture all the Technology they could grab, and advance
their own Military and Civilian Programs.
"To The Victor Belong The Spoils"

13. Commenter identity confirmed Bill says:
23 Oct 2009 06:37:19 PM

Did you know that 27,000,000 U.S.Veterans are
living today, that's 10% of the population
of the Country.
Just about Every Generation of Americans,has served the Nation in Peace and War. I have
remembered a saying:
"If there is trouble,let it be in my day,so
that my child and every man's child may live
in peace".
14. Commenter identity confirmed Bill says:
23 Oct 2009 06:45:39 PM

"The tumult and shouting dies, the Captains
and the Kings depart," wrote Kipling and
prophetically in 1897.
"Lord God of Hosts, be with us yet, lest we
forget, lest we forget"
15. Commenter identity confirmed Bill says:
27 Oct 2009 11:24:26 AM

The years after the Great Patriotic War were
times of great difficulty and hardship for
the people of the Soviet Union.
All of its cities were in ruins, shortages
were everywhere,Government rationing programs
did little to help the people, who were still
suffering from starvation.
The Great Patriotic War required every effort
from Science and Industry that Russia possessed. Although victorious over Nazi,
Germany, the Soviet Union, was weakened and exhausted.Starvation, crushing poverty would
last well into the 1950's.
Despite these conditions,Stalin's Government
continued to fuction. After World War II the
Russians demanded extradition of all Russians,who fought against the Soviet State
during the war, hundreds of thousands of
Cossacks,Prisoners of War,Partisans and those
who supported Hitler, were rounded up by the
NKVD many were sent to the Gulag's in Siberia
others were shot,after they arrived back in
the Soviet Union.
Little known rebellions in Poland, Belarus,
Ukraine and other locations lasted into the
1950's, Beria's NKVD used force, to crush
the rebels.
Stalin and others decided that Russia would
never again be invaded. They used the Nations of Eastern Europe, as a buffer zone
against any aggression from the West.
To achieve this, the Soviets sent aid to the
their Communists backed Governments in all
the Nations they controlled, at the end of the War. To enforce these Governments to stay in line,the Russians stationed Hundreds
of Thousands of troops to enforce Communist
It is interesting that during this time,when
Russia still lay in ruins, and its people
were starving, that Military production, was
continuning at a War-time footing.
These leaders saw how vulnerable Russia was,
and they were concerned, they were afraid
when compared their Nations condition to that
of Western Europe, led by the powerful
United States. Towards the end of this period
military activity continued to move at a rapid pace. The Warsaw Pact was formed by the Soviet Union in 1955, to counter this the
NATO Alliance was formed, and supported by the United States.
The Soviet Union,and the United States would
move and counter-move,each other,until the end of the Cold War.
16. Commenter identity confirmed Bill says:
19 Nov 2009 04:32:34 PM


Average number of servicemen that died per-
month during World War II was 6,600 that's
about 220 per-day.
This does not include the missing, wounded and pow's
17. Commenter identity confirmed Bill says:
21 Nov 2009 03:33:15 PM

"To The Victor Belong The Spoils"
#12 Continued Dated 19 Oct 2009 09:14:24 AM

The U.S.Government approprated the heavy industrial machines and other equipment
needed for an industrial base, also taken were German patents, as well as all
German company assets in the U.S.
"Intellectual reparations" such as patents
and blue-prints, taken by the U.S. and U.K.
ammounted close to $10 Billion equivalent
to over $100 Billion in 2005.
Taken were the German scientists, engineers
and technicians. Professionals such as
chemists, medical doctors and weapons experts
the list goes on and on.
"To The Victor Belong The Spoils"...
18. Commenter identity confirmed Bill says:
24 Nov 2009 09:04:09 PM

Where did all those German Manufactures go?

Heavy, Medium and Light Trucks:

Plus manufacturers of Heavy and Light Industrial Equipment.
The factories with the most modern equipment
disappeared either because of bombing, or
stolen by the Victors.

Technology stolen by the Victors, plus the many hundreds and thousands of large and
small manufactures. The thousands of tons of
Blue-prints and Documents.

"To The Victor Belong The Spoils"
19. Commenter identity confirmed Bill says:
29 Nov 2009 02:22:43 PM

After World War II Germany's infrastructure
was heavily damaged, but about 60% of its
industrial capacity remained.
To rebuild With the help of the Marshall Plan assisted what was to become the
Federal Republic of Germany. As time passed, life improved and within ten (10) years
the "Wirtschaftswunder" (Economic Miracle)
made West Germany the 3rd largest economy on the planet.
Germany continued to pay for the horrors of
World War II like the Americans, French and
the Russians, the British took part in the dismantling of thousands of both heavy and small industries, that were either destroyed or moved to the Victors countries.
The British abducted hundreds of scientists
and other professionals,and put them to work
in both civil and military areas in the UK.
As a result of Germany's defeat in World War
II and the start of the Cold War,the country was split into two blocs. West Germany a
parliametary democracy, member of NATO and a
founding member of what was to become the European Union, and what would become one of the world's largest economies.

Germany was divided into four(4) occupation
zones Governed by the USA, USSR, France and
England. Hundreds of thousands were uprooted
died, starved, murdered by rampaging troops The German Armed Forces were abolished with
only a token force of civilian and military police to keep some sort of order.
Industry designed to support a military force
was destroyed or moved out of the country.
Only light industry that was needed and only
for "approved peacetime needs" was operating.
Some political leaders wanted Germany totally
destroyed push them into a very light type of
industry and agricultural system only, with
no heavy industry at all. Others wanted the country stripped of everything, and not able
to threaten europe again.
The removing of factories continued until
1951, and after the limitations on industry
were removed However, arms manufacture was prohibited. The French attemped to gain some econmic control over the Saar, and was only
temporarily successful.
The United States wanted to re-arm Germany,
as a resource in the Cold War, it was felt
the country needed a new military force to
help protect its borders, but this force was to be very limited in size.

East Germany became a Totalitarian Communist
Dictatorship Allied with the Soviet Union,in
reality another Soviet Satellite State.
The Russians continued to ship everything and anything back to Russia. Millions of
Germans both Civilian and Military Pow's were
used as forced labor.
Death rate for German Pow's in Russia were
very high, 19% among mobilized internees and
39% among arrested internees. Thousands died
from insufficient food and medical care.
The Russians were not alone the US, England
and France used such labor. In December 1945
2,000 Germans were killed each month in labor
In the Soviet occupied East Germany(GDR)that
economy did not get much help, but they at
least managed to become the Eastern-Bloc
State with the highest standard of living
that was roughly comparable to Ireland at one
time. The Marshall Plan was offered to the
Russians and the Eastern-Bloc States, but was turned down, Socialism could do it alone
As time passed East Germany became one of the most advanced countries in the Soviet- bloc, but most of its citizens looked to the
West for political freedeom and economic
prosperity. Germany was re-unified as a
nation on February 1990. To this day, there
remains much difference between the former
East and West Germany (lifestyle, wealth,
political beliefs and other matters). The Eastern German Economy still struggles, and
large subsidies are transferred from the
Western Economy.

Last of the Soviet forces left Berlin in August 1994, Western Troops followed in September of the same year.

Berlin is once again the Capitol of Germany

The last Germans (Those who were sentenced
for war crimes, defined by the Soviets as being a member of the German Armed Forces)
were repatriated in 1956,or later.

Hunderds of Thousands of German Soldiers never returned home, many of the Pow's died,
were starved, over-worked, lack of medical care and disease.

"Look not mournfully into the Past. It comes
not back again. Wisely improve the present
It is thine. Go forth to meet the shadowy
future, without fear".

-Henry Wadsworth Longfellow-
20. Commenter identity confirmed Bill says:
8 Dec 2009 11:08:35 AM

Russia still owes the United States what remains of the 740 million dollar debt which the Russians refused to pay in the 1970's
Talks have been suspended until 2030.

Did you know: Russia bought Industrial-scale
equipment from the U.S.A. during W.W.II, and
paid for it with gold. This was not part of
21. Commenter identity confirmed Bill says:
14 Dec 2009 01:57:29 PM

When we speak about the War in Europe,really how big is this area.
Europe covers 4,010,000 square miles about 2% of the Earth's surface. Comprises 43 Countries. So we look at the Russian drive
towards Berlin, what was the distance from
point A to point B. Let's take a look.

Distance in Air Miles from Berlin to:

Moscow 1,006
Warsaw 328
Rome 746
Prague 132
Paris 553
Belgrade 628
Bucharest 830
Budapest 444
Copenhagen 217
London 591
Tokyo 5,572

Amsterdam to London 225
Frankfurt to London 390
London to Moscow 1,568

France can fit into the State of Texas.
From the French coast of Normandy to the World War II City of Stalingrad 1,500 air- miles.
Driving from Berne, Switzerland to Frankfurt,
Germany, is about 264 miles one-way, that's
about the distance I travel from Las Vegas,
Nevada to Los Angeles, California one-way.
22. Commenter identity confirmed Bill says:
14 Dec 2009 05:34:23 PM

The Berlin Wall was a barrier surrounding
West Berlin 1961 to 1989.
It was to become a symbol of the Cold War
between East and West,the wall was a response
to the 2,500,000 East Germans, that fled from 1949 to 1961.
This exodus threatened to destroy the total economic viability of the East German State. At the end of World War II the Allied powers
divided Germany into four zones, occupied by
the United States, Soviet Union, Britain and
France, as agreed by the Potsdam Conference,
The same was done for Berlin.
In 1961 the East Germans supported by the
Russians erected the wall between East and
West Berlin. There was a 300 ft. no-man's-
land strip w/patrolling soldiers w/ dogs, anti-vehicle trenches, flood lights and the
It was a symbol of Communism for the past 28
years. The system was cracking, all across
Eastern Europe, how does that song go
"The times they were a changin"
The Berlin wall Fell in 1989 East & West Germany became united in 1990.
Germany a nation divided for decades under
opposing political systems will have to learn to live and work together all over again.


Hungary takes down barbed wire obstacles
along the Austrain borber.

Honecker resigns as Politburo Chief.

All travel restrictions to West lifted.

German Reunification: September 12, 1990

Russian troops leave what was once East
Germany, and East Berlin end of 1994.

Collapse of U.S.S.R. in 1991.

Russian troops leave Eastern Europe.

Warsaw Pact Alliance is Dissolved in 1991
several warsaw pact members join NATO.

Allied troops leave Berlin, June 1994 their
mission successfully concluded, at one time
12,000 Allied troops stationed in W.Berlin,
were facing over 700,000 Russian and East
German troops and were over 120 miles inside what was East Germany.

Allied troops held their parade, and marched through West Berlin.
Russian troops held their parade and marched
through East Berlin.

60,000 American troops will remain in the Western part of Germany.

Another 40,000 American troops will remain elsewhere in Europe.

The last French troops will leave Germany in
2010, in the future the only French troops
in Germany will be a 2,500 man/bilingual
Franco/German brigade stationed at a German base.

23. Commenter identity confirmed Bill says:
14 Dec 2009 07:06:07 PM

British troops will leave Germany about 70
years after the end of World War II, that
will be around 2015.
Although the British presence has been scaled
down over the years, about 25,000 troops
remain. British troops left West Berlin in September 1994.
24. Commenter identity confirmed Bill says:
14 Dec 2009 08:44:52 PM

After unification, what happened to the East German Armed Forces?

Many reservists and conscripts who were on leave fled the country,and disappearing into West Germany.
The Armed Forces were disbanded upon the two
Germany's unification, its bases taken over by the Bundeswehr effective October 3, 1990.
Discharged all unnecessary personnel,dispose
of surplus equipment and weapons.
Various units,command and control transfered
to the Bundeswehr.
90,000 personnel merger with the Bundeswehr
on a preliminary basis. 5,000 of the 14,000
Officers were permitted to enter the Bundeswehr, after screening. Former members
of the State Security Service (Stasi) after
investigation/political screening were held
for criminal charges or discharged.
All 190 General Officers, were retired, all Colonels and other officers over the age of
55 were also retired.
Soviet equipment was replaced over time,large
amounts of equipment was turned over to the Bundeswehr.2,300 Tanks,7,800 Armored Vehicles
2,500 Artillery Pieces, 400 Combat Aircraft,
Over 100 Attack and Transport Helicopters,
Missile and rocket Systems. 300,000 tons of
Ammunition,plus support equipment,uniforms and other supply items working w/ CFE Treaty stocks of weapons and equipment, except for
technicial equipment, would be transfered
to other countries, or would be scheduled
for destruction.
Given the choice between staying in the East
German Armed Forces, or going home how many of those wanted to leave, and build a life for themselves, for their families and a new

Question what would you have done,if you had
been a common soldier?
What was that song from the 1960's called.
"A Soldier, A Comming Home Soldier, No More
Fighting And Marching For Me".
I know what my decision would have been,
because I've been a soldier.
25. Commenter identity confirmed Bill says:
15 Dec 2009 06:41:58 PM

"With the(ending)of the the NVA...went the
last true German Army".

-Former Inspector General,of the West German

The one time Nationalen Volksarmee Military Forces comprised one of the Cold War's most
formidable armies.
However, these same forces also kept the
East German people from revolting against the hard-line Communists rule for over four
Over 380,000 Soviet troops were stationed in
East Germany, to insure internal security,
support for the East German Communists Party
and to keep East Germans from uprising against their larger Communists brother to
the east...
60% were draftee's, weapons and equipment were Russian made,tactics and training based
upon Russian Military/Political Controls.
Interesting to note, the East German Army
had uniforms very similar to the Wehrmacht,
the Combat helmit, was a design, that was never put into production during World War II. Even rank insignia for Officer,enlisted and NCO's were simular to the Wehrmacht the
Goose Step was also used.

"And who shall guard the guards"
-Roman Praetorian Guard-

The NVA was made up of:
East German Military Units
East German Police Units/Border Guards/VOPO's
Intelligence & Security (Stasi)
Militia & Para-Military Organizations
Everybody watches Everybody Informers and

With unification of the two Germany's, on
October 3, 1990 thousands of career officers and NCO's were retired, enlisted personnel
discharged. The Nationalen Volksarmee passed
into History.

Since Germany first became a modern unified
state in 1871 names of the ground forces have

1871-1935 Reichsheer or Imperial Army, part of Imperial Forces.

1935-1945 Heer or Army, part of the Wehrmacht
(Adolf Hitler Supreme Commander).

1956-1990 Landstreitkrafte, Ground Forces of
the East German Nationalen Volksarmee.

1955-Present Deutsches Heer, German Army.
26. Commenter identity confirmed Bill says:
19 Dec 2009 10:23:41 AM

The Bundeswehr has about 200,500 professional soldiers w/ 55,000 conscrips between the age of 18/25, who serve 9 months
current rules, and also serve up to 24 months voluntary. This force is supported by 300,000 reservists.

During the Cold War, the Bundeswehr was the backbone of NATO's Conventional forces in
Central Europe.
27. Commenter identity confirmed Bill says:
21 Dec 2009 07:26:29 PM

Interesting facts about the Berlin Wall:

The wall stood for 28 years.

Thousands died trying to escape to freedom.

The USSR wanted to keep Berlin, as a spoil of war.
Berlin was controlled by the four power agreement between the USA, USSR, Britain and
West Berlin was in the middle of the Russian Zone, about 120 miles inside East Germany. In 1948 the Russians closed all road and rail
traffic to Berlin, the West supplied Berlin
by air, for 9 months Stalin gives in.

In 1949 East and West Germany become States.
Between 1949-1960 3,000,000 East Germans leave the DDR through West Berlin.

In 1960 over 200,000 leave and by June of 1961, another 160,000 also leave.

East Germany must do something, working with
the USSR, a wall, will be built.
August 3,1961 the wall starts to go up, all
the Allies can do is watch. The East Germans
close 77 border crossings into West Berlin.
The wall will be 97 miles long. The West
protests,but construction continues day and

October 1961 US and Russian Tanks face each other at Check-point Charlie, they are about 250 meters away, from each other. After 16 hours, the Tanks pull back.

In 1964 70 tunnels were dug and over 250 people escaped.

Over the next 10 years,the wall is improved
and re-inforced.
560 miles of border fences,1,000 watch towers
and 50,000 guards. Supported with 60,000
automatic weapons, minefields and flood lights.
In the 1970's, the USSR stations nuclear weapons in East Germany.
The US stations its nuclear weapons in West Germany.

Many East German soldiers and border guards
escape to the west, about 1,000 people a
year also escape.
The wall and other fortifications, eat into
the GNP of East Germany it spends over a
Billion a year, just to maintain it.

'Go West young man, Go West!'
-Russian Proverb-

Late 1980's Eastern Europe is changing many
Communists Governments are collapsing, the
border between Hungary and Austria is open
East Germans have a safe way out.
The USSR stands back unwilling to assist
East Germany.
November 9,1989 East German citizens can travel to the west, the check-points are met
by thousands leaving, the guards stand by,
and do nothing and many of them leave as well. The DDR/East Germany is collapsing.

October 3, 1990 Germany is unified.
Over 40,000 escaped during the 28 years the
wall stood.
75,000 were captured, and sent to prison.
1,300 people died trying to escape to freedom
and 136 people died in Berlin itself.
The East Germans covered up more deaths, so we will rever really know how many people
What became of the wall? It was torn down,
but some parts of the wall stand, as a
reminder of tyranny,other parts were sent to museums, and chips have become souvenirs.
The steel and concerete have been re-cycled
to help rebuild Germany, and a once divided Country..

Personal note*

I was stationed in West Germany, and one of
the first places I wanted to visit was
West Berlin, I wanted to see the wall with
my own eyes. It was a very interesting trip.
I had to wait 30 days for clearance to be
able to travel to Berlin, and I had to keep
my travel orders with me at all times.
My orders were in English, German, French and Russian.
I had the opportunity to look into East Berlin, from a West Berlin Police Check-point
I was given binoculars, and at the same time
the Vopo's were also looking at me.
I was also being filmed, I guess they felt
that I was important, maybe even an American CIA/Spook. Nevertheless it was a strange
experience that Vopo and me, looking at each other through our binoculars.
28. Commenter identity confirmed Bill says:
1 Jan 2010 01:47:22 PM

Deutsche Demokratische Republik (DDR)
October 7, 1949 to October 3, 1990

The Coat of Arms of East Germany had:
A hammer,and a compass,surrounded by a ring
of rye.
Both East and West Germany at one time used
the same colors of three equal horizontal
stripe's Top Black, Middle Red, Bottom Gold.

The current West German Flag was adopted on
May 9, 1949.
In 1959 the coat of arms was added, to the East German Flag and used from 1959 to 1989,
and featured Communist emblems, as described above.

The colors of Black, Red and Gold are traced back to 19th Century volunteers, who fought
for the country during the Napolenic wars.
The colors were based on the uniform's the soldiers wore, which were Black coats, with Red braid and Gold buttons.

The German Flag has been used three times in
German History:
It was adopted in 1848 and abolished in 1852.

Adopted by Imperial Germany 1892 to 1918 the
Colors were: Three equal horizontal stripe's of Black, White and Red, the colors were
again adopted by the Weimar Republic in 1919

Abolished again in 1933 However, it was used briefly between 1933 to 1935.

Replaced with the Nazi Party Flag, that also
became the National Flag of Nazi Germany, it
featured a red background, with a black
Swastika in the middle of it on a white
circle used between 1935 to 1945.
29. Commenter identity confirmed Bill says:
27 Apr 2010 03:39:12 PM

Changing of the Guard, The New World Order
And The Cold War:

"Look back over the past, with its changing
empires that rose and fell, and you can see
the future".

-Marcus Aurelius, Emperor of Rome-
30. Anonymous says:
14 May 2010 05:28:56 AM

Thanks for the interesting commentary Bill.
The Cold War brought out the best in the West and the worst in the East.
In 1957 I was a teenage soldier in Berlin, there was no wall yet, many West Berliners were still living in cellars and working in East Berlin where a lot of construction was going on.
After re-unification the BRD merged with the DDR to form the "BRDDR."
Since then the story has been ever-increasing censorship and repression throughout Germany.
31. Commenter identity confirmed Bill says:
22 May 2010 06:07:23 PM

To Anonymous #30 Dated 14 May 2010

Thank you for your comment, I'm always glad
to receive feedback on ww2db. I would like
to learn more about the BRD that merged with
the DDR to form BRDDDR.

The only place in Western Europe, that the
citizens bought me beer, was during my five
day leave to West Berlin, that was about 120
miles inside the DDR or East Germany.
My next leaves were to visit Paris,France and
London,England. Upon my return from England,
my orders for duty to South Vietnam arrived
Sept. 1967 by Nov. 1967 I was in the field
with the 9th Infantry Div. Mekong Delta area

"I said an elder soldier, not a better
Did I say better?"

Julius Caesar Act IV. Sc.III

120 Degree Heat, 95 Percent Humidity
Two Seasons: Hot and Dry and Hot and Wet
Served in Vietnam from 1967 to 1970
32. Commenter identity confirmed Bill says:
28 Jul 2010 05:41:08 PM

The (NVA) Nationale Volksarmee was disbanded
upon reunification of East and West Germany.
The uniforms, insignia and ceremonies were
patterned after German Military Traditions.
However doctrine and structure were influenced by the Soviet Armed Forces,and it
was one of the most professional and pepared
forces in the world.

Many of its command positions,that were held in the early years of the NVA, were held by
ex-Wehrmacht officers. By the 1960's many of
these officers had retired.

A little known fact:

Many of the West German (Bundeswehr) officers
were also ex-Wehrmacht veterans, and many held command positions in its own ranks.

The NVA in some ways, was a mirror image of
the Wartime Wehrmacht, than those of the
West German (Bundeswehr).
The troops marched to the goose step,drills,
training and ceremonies even the uniforms resembled those of the Wehrmacht.

Many of the NVA Generals and Admirals also
served in the Wehrmacht. In its first years
the NVA was an all-volunteer force, when
West Germany had universal military service
in 1956.
However, by 1962 the NVA started to draft
and its strength increased to 170,000 troops
many officers were Communist Party Members
to maintain control over the troops with
intensive political education and training
for the ranks.

After reunification many Officers and NCO's
were retired, and service in the NVA, did't
count towards retirement and many received
a small pension.
Many of these men, had to find jobs in the
new Germany. Former Officers of the NVA,were
not permitted to use their former rank as a
professional title.
However, no such rule was applied to rank
held in the Wehrmacht or even menbers of the
Waffen-SS during the Nazi era.
33. Commenter identity confirmed Bill says:
30 Jul 2010 08:32:12 AM

Did you know...

At one time former members of the Nazi Party
and former professional officers, held many
positions in former East Germany.
They held and served in Economic, Military,
Political,and Cultural life in the DDR.
34. Commenter identity confirmed Bill says:
30 Jul 2010 08:53:55 AM

World War II Reparation took many different
forms, Germany had to pay war reparations to many of the Countries it had invaded and

Reparations also took the form of the Allied
occuption of Germany. Much of its Machinery,
Industrial base and Wartime Technology was
moved out of Germany by both the Allies and
the USSR.
Germany paid added war reparations to the
USSR, for five years after the end of
World War II. Germany ended its reparations
to the United States in 1952,under agreement
by both Countries.


Marshall Plan was started to rebuild all the Countries effected by World War II.
This plan was also offered to the Countries
of Eastern Europe and to the USSR, but for
Political reasons it was turned down.
35. Commenter identity confirmed Bill says:
18 Sep 2010 04:52:16 PM

THE COLD WAR 1945-1991

Continuing state of Political conflict and
Military tension between the USA and USSR.
The USA and its allies created NATO, the USSR
and its allies created the Warsaw Pact.

The Soviets occupied Eastern Europe and did
little to advance those countries, outside of
setting up Communist Governments that were
supported by the Soviet Military.
Many of those countries suffered economic

Both sides maintained large standing armed
forces, and created nuclear and conventual
weapons,with continued research & development
that cost both countries billions to maintain
and upgrade.
At the same time, the USA and the USSR sought
'Detente' to relieve political tensions.

Both sides supported client states around the
world with both political and military help.
Proxy wars would be fought between the USA
and the USSR in both military, political and
with economic assistance.
Both the USA and the USSR understood that total war between them would mean complete
distruction of both countries and most of the
world as we know it.

The USA continue to develope its weapons and
military power, and at the same time,provide
the nation with civilian goods and services.
The USSR continued its military buildup since
the end of World War II with most of its
budget going into military research and
development, with limited civilian goods for
its people.

The USSR also supported its client states at
a cost in billions each year. This would lead
to economic stagnation.
The Cold War ended with the collapes of the
Soviet Union in 1991, Soviet troops left and
returned home, The people of Eastern Europe forced out the Communist Governments, and
regained their National Independence.


Thousands of uniformed soldiers of both sides
died as a result of combat action during the
Cold War. The exact total of causalities will
never really be known for both sides. Military, covert and clandestine operations
of both sides will remain secret, in support of each of their client states.

The United States the former Soviet Union
and Russia will always withold the truth.
Such operations continue to this day by the
CIA, or the KGB's successor its business as
usual the guys in the white and black hats,
just put on different types of hats! its the
same dance, to a different tune.

This is not an experts opinion on the Cold War, comments and corrections are invited.

Did you know...

The first overflights of the USSR started in 1946 by both the USA and Britain.

Did you know...

George Orwell used the term "Cold War" in a
essay published in October 1945.

The term "Iron Curtain" was used in a speech
by Winston Churchill in Fulton, Missouri in
March 1946.
To read his speech, click under people here
at the ww2db.
36. Commenter identity confirmed Bill says:
7 Oct 2010 11:57:12 AM


Hundreds of films were produced during the
50's, 60's, 70's ,80's and 1990's and beyond the theme was about the same us against them

Each leader of the USA and the USSR always
had his finger on the red button.

Hollywood produced some great films, I'm listing the films, I've enjoyed the most, and there are others.

Fail Safe 1964
On The Beach 1959
Dr. Strangelove 1964
The Bedford Incident 1965
Seven Days In May 1964
The Manchurian Candidate 1962
Hunt For Red October 1990
Thirteen Days 2000
Missiles Of October 1974
The Day After 1983
Ice Station Zebra 1968

Plus Others.
37. Commenter identity confirmed Bill says:
2 Dec 2010 01:57:42 PM

More interesting facts about I.G. Farben
continued from number 12 and number 17


The full story about I.G. Farben's activities
will never really be known, key records were
destroyed during World War II. Other Foreign
records are buried deep, locked away in sealed archives.

During World War II I.G. Farben supplied the
German War Machine, had Industrial, Foreign
and Political Influence.
I.G. Farben acquired 380 other German firms
and over 500 foreign firms, over 2,000
agreements between I.G. Farben and other
Companies such as Standard oil of New Jersey,
DuPont, Alcoa, Dow Chemical and others in the
United States.


Who were the real power players during WWII the major combatants, or the World bankers.


I.G. Farben and American I.G. everybody was in it for the money, everybody was going to
get something out of it.
Ford Motor Co.,Standard Oil of New Jersey, Bank of Manhatten, Federal Reserve Bank of
New York, German Bankers, Swiss Bankers even
French Bankers, British Bankers and don't forget the Lawyers both Foregn and Domestic.
38. Commenter identity confirmed Bill says:
7 Dec 2010 01:15:20 PM


Cessation of Hostilities between Germany and
the United States, were Signed on December 13,1946


Signed between the U.S. and its Allies with
Italy, Bulgaria, Finland, Hungary and Romania, on February 10, 1947.

End of the war with Germany was granted by the U.S. Congress on October 19, 1951.
The West German Government wanted to end the
State of War, but the request was not granted.

The U.S. State of War with Germany was also maintained for legal reasons it was However, softened but not suspended.

The US retained its legal basis for keeping
US Troops in West Germany.
In 1951 the Allies ended their State of War
with West Germany. The State of War between Germany and the USSR ended in 1955.

Sovereignty of West Germany was granted on May 5, 1955, US and Allied forces would continued to station forces within the country. In 1955 West Germany would become a NATO member.

Germany became unified October 3, 1990, and
both East and West Germany became fully sovereign on March 15, 1991.
Allied forces would reduce troops stationed within the country.

No Russian or Allied Troops are stationed in Berlin, the Capitol of Germany.
Russian Troops would leave territory that was once East Germany.
East Germany as a member state, of the Warsaw Pact ceased to exist March 31, 1991.
The pact itself disolved among countries in Eastern Europe the USSR didn't stand in the way.
All military equipment that was supplied by USSR/Russia would be turned over to the
Federal Republic of Germany.
The East German Armed Forces would disband, personnel discharged or retired.

60,000 US Troops and Air Forces would remain
in the country.

French Troops would leave Germany in 2010 and
a Franco/German Brigade of 2500 troops would remain.

British Troops would start to withdraw from
the country, and by 2015 have left Germany.

NATO maintains and rotates its air power in member countries.

"Its only the dead who have seen the end of


Ancient Greek Philosopher 428BC-348BC

"The tragedy of war, is that it uses man's best to do man's worst"...

-Henry Fosdick-

American Clergyman (1878-1969)
39. Commenter identity confirmed Bill says:
8 Dec 2010 06:31:35 PM


October 3, 2010 Germany paid off the last
$94,000,000 million it owed on what was originally its $33,000,000,000 billion dept.
The reparation payments dictated by the
Treaty of Versailles helped plant the seeds
for World War II.

OCTOBER 3, 2010

Most of the final payment went to investment
funds, corporations holding bonds that were
issued by Germany in the 1920s, to finance
its reparations dept, but never paid off.

The massive dept of a defeated Germany caused
its economy to collapes, that sparked social
unrest, that led to the rise of Adolf Hitler
the Nazi Party. The Third Reich refused to
pay any World War I reparations.


World War I lasted 4 years, 3 months and
14 days. 9.7 million soldiers and 6.8 million
civilians died. 40 million horses, dogs and
carrier pigeons and other animals also died
in battle.


Germany's World War I dept is paid, but what
about its World War II dept? Even before the end of WWII the Allies were planning how to
make Germany pay reparations.


The USSR proposed that Germany pay to them
20,000,000,000, and the Soviets wanted half
The United States and Great Britain agreed
to the Soviet proposal, but realized that
Germany couldn't make such a payment.
The Yalta Conference decided that Germany
should compensate the Allies.

Allied claims for war damages reached over
320,000,000,000 billion. The USSR received
reparations from industrial equipment and
related technology. The Soviets dismantled
factories and other material and shipped
them back to the USSR.

The Allies also dismantled hundreds of large
and small factories shipping all types of
industrial equipment and technology back to Allied countries and to the USA.
The United States received about 1/4th of
the total, the rest divided up among the
other Allies.

Since 1951 Germany has paid reparations over
102,000,000,000 billion marks, thats about
61.8 billion dollars.
Germany has paid reparations to the countries
it invaded and occupied during WWII.
Special agreements concluded with Poland,
Ukraine, Belarus and the Russian Federation.

There is no sign that Germany's World War II
reparations will end. Germany has paid out
billions to private, public funds and
compensations to wartime slave labor, Jews
who had been persecuted during the era of the Third Reich.
Others have been compensated on basis of race, religion, origin and ideology.


One day in the future Germany's World War II
reparations will be paid in full, how many
generations will it take?, for a people who
never took part in a war that was fought long
ago will make the last payment.
40. Commenter identity confirmed Bill says:
10 Dec 2010 08:49:43 AM

To learn more click on Equipment, scroll to Vehicles, click and scroll down to Other,
Click on Jeep.

Here at ww2db.
Best wishes,
41. Commenter identity confirmed Bill says:
17 Dec 2010 07:48:03 PM


With the end of the Second World War the world's two Superpowers the United States and the Soviet Union, entered into a bitter
"Cold War" that lasted over forty years.


The "Cold War" was longer, far more reaching than the wars of 1914-1918 and 1939-1945.
The Balance of Power and Political landscape of Europe, and much of the world changed.

Smaller Nations became pawns, in proxy wars that were fought, each Superpower supplied its client with military and economic aid and
political influence designed to tilt the
Balance of Power.

The US provided military and economic aid in the theory that this helps against aggression
and tilt towards its influence.

The USSR also provided military and economic
aid to its satellite and clients as well but made them dependent on it.
Both the US and USSR influence non-aligned
nations with the same type of aid.


Each side created its own Military Alliance
NATO and the Warsaw Pact. The US and USSR developed, improved, maintained and deployed its nuclear weapons.


Each side dared not to attack the other for
fear of Mutually Assured Destruction (MAD).


Each side maintained its military on 24 hour
alert, each side would never be caught again
unprepared. This move and counter-move would continue until the end of the Cold War, and the breakup of the USSR. The United States
emerged as the worlds only Superpower, into
a uncertain future.


My opinions, conclusions and freedom of expression, do not reflect the position of ww2db in anyway.
42. Commenter identity confirmed Bill says:
22 Dec 2010 10:50:11 AM


When the Cold War ended, and for the moment
a widespread feeling of euphoria the feeling
that at long last peace had come.

The countries of Eastern Europe regained their independence, the Soviet Union had collapsed, the fear and shadow of nuclear weapons of the Superpowers had vanished.

However, there was continued trouble left in the world, that had been overshadowed by the
Cold War. There are new dangers, new enemies new ideologies. The nuclear arsenals of the
U.S.A. and U.S.S.R. had, for the moment
stood down since then the Russian Federation
and the United States continue to develope
and improve these weapons.


Both the U.S.A. and the Russian Federation
maintain its nuclear weapons, each side has
thousands of warheads other countries that
have these weapos are:
Britain, France, Communist China, N. Korea,
India and Pakistan.
Other states believed to have nuclear weapons
are Israel and South Africa


Belgium, Germany, Italy, Netherlands & Turkey


The weapons used to preserve the balance of
power are now going worldwide smaller nations
want a slice of the nuclear pie.

New dangers of more non-nuclear countries achieving these weapons, other nations that feel threatened, ideologies that will further
their agenda will make an effort to buy, steal or built one.
Is a new shadow falling upon the world, an era of perpetual war, for perpetual peace?

"No country can act wisely simultaneously in
every part of the globe at every moment in time."

-Henry Kissinger-
43. Commenter identity confirmed Bill says:
22 Dec 2010 04:51:01 PM


Never, ever, underestimate your enemy today
or tomorrow.

Don't always think, you hold all the technology. Because some other country just might surprise you.

Remember when your number one, number two,
number three and number four all want a shot at you.

Friends have become enemies, and enemies have
become friends always remember that.

Always hold the high ground, this way you can
keep an eye on everthing.

When it comes to National Interest, there are
no friends.

Remember protect yourself, because no one else will.

When you show weakness enemies gather.

If a nation must use military force, use it
with overwhelming might and execute your planes fast. This will get respect of both friends and enemies. Enemies in the shadows, will rethink.

Those who stood by you, will always have your

If one day, you must fight a battle alone remember where your friends were.

I've been a soldier, not a diplomate so I can
only tell you the truth.


"The only thing necessary for the triumph of evil is for good men to do nothing."

-Thomas Burke-
44. Commenter identity confirmed Bill says:
31 Dec 2010 09:10:34 PM


What became of the former Warsaw Pact? and what countries were formed after the breakup of Yugoslavia, that have become NATO members


Czech Republic





Since reunification of East Germany and the
Federal Republic of Germany on October 3,1990
the German Democratic Republic has been


Ukraine: Seeks cooperation w/ NATO
Azerbaijan: Cooperation w/ NATO meetings, and
hosted military exercises.
Armenia: Membership not at present time
Kazakhstan: Membership not at present time
Moldova: Participates in NATO partnership for peace program.
Belarus: Membership not at present time
Serbia: Membership not at present time


Bosnia and Herzegovina: Moving toward NATO membership.
Macedonia: Moving toward NATO membership
Montenegro: Moving toward NATO membership
Georgia: Moving toward NATO membership



Four republics Slovenia, Croatia, Macedonia and Bosnia-Herzegovina make up the countries that broked away in 1992.

In 2002 the name Yugoslavia was abandoned and the country was called the Community of States of Serbia and Montenergo.


The country split in half on January 1, 1993
to form the Czech Republic and Slovakia, both are Independent States.

Russia: Does not plan to join NATO
France: Pulled out of NATO in 1966
Sweden: Non-Aligned / Neutral
Finland: No plans to join NATO / Neutral
45. Commenter identity confirmed Bill says:
31 Dec 2010 10:09:57 PM


Following the diminishing power of the USSR
in the 1980s and the eventual fall of
Communism, the Warsaw Treaty became redundant

The Warsaw Pact was dissolved in Prague in
1991, after successive governments withdrew
their support of the treaty.

Yugoslavia was never a member of the Warsaw Pact. The country broke defence relations with the USSR in 1948, seven years before the pact was signed.

Albania joined the pact in 1955, but withdrew
in December 1961 after breaking off relations
with the USSR, Albania turned to Communist China until breakdown in relations during the 1970s resulted in the country's total
46. Commenter identity confirmed Bill says:
21 Jan 2011 08:42:05 AM


The post war world was split into political spheres of influence, Europe into East and
West with the rest of the world influenced
by both the USA and the USSR.


Both Superpowers maintained client states, provided military assistance to fight proxy wars and wars of liberation economic aid to
maintain the balance of power over the other
In times of crisis the USA and the USSR would aid, support and provide whatever its
client state needed, the conflict would go so far, and a political solution would be found.

Both the Military of the USA and the USSR was in control of civilian authority, the Kremlin and the White House, kept the dogs
of war of each of their military forces from
geting to much control.


The Political leadership of each Superpower
would use its influence to stop the fighting its client states, but who would stop both of them, if they really went beyond the unthinkable?


The Generals of both sides would talk about the first strike. Make detailed plans, and
maintain the military forces ready to carry them out.


"Its coming one would say, Woosh up over and Whammo! and another would respond, and what do you think they are going to do?
They'll retaliate the best way they can with their Woosh up over and Whammo to us! But, we'll get the first lick, and their licks? not so properly aimed, not so skillfully carried out...

This never happened, it was only a senario
but its a chilling what if... a sequence of events that got out of control, and led to
the unthinkable.

Latin, Scenarium for see scene

Dark humor:

End of the World at Ten, Details at Eleven,
can it Happen here.
47. Commenter identity confirmed Bill says:
23 Jan 2011 07:56:20 PM

Number 46, sorry I misspelled scenario should
have caught that, time to call it a day.


The United States and the Russian Federation
continue to improve, design and deploy its nuclear weapons.
Each side has over tens of thousands that are
in storage, reserve, alert, deployed or plan
to be retired and dismantled.
The actual number remains a subject of debate
both sides agree to talk and reduce their stockpiles, but tatical nukes are an ongoing


Both sides still maintain submarine, land and air launched weapons. Most weapons have a yield of 100 kilotons each side keeps 900 missiles and 2,581 Strategic Nuclear Warheads
on alert.
The total power is 1,158 Mt(Megatons),or a
Million Tons of TNT or equivalent type of explosive.


Both sides maintain their nuclear forces on 15 minute alert years after the end of the Cold War.
The navies of the USA and the Russian Federation can launch their submarine based SLBMs within a few minutes.


Old targeting data and missile trajectories are stored in command computers, and the missiles can be re-targeted within seconds.

The United States keeps its targeting data as well, the finger is away from the button, but still not far enough away. In a future
crisis the weapons can be turned around, and pointed against each other.


2,654 Warheads on alert:
The US has 1,382 vs Russia'a 1,272 they are equivalent to 100,000 Hiroshima bombs! the Hiroshima bomb yield was 15 kilotons.
The end of the Cold War didn't change the strategies of how the US and Russia operate their nuclear forces.
Each political leader has his or her window of decision to go or no go its 12 minutes and the doomsday clock is still ticking maybe its hands have moved back, but its still ticking.

Reminds me of a cartoon I saw years ago:

Two men carry all types of weapons on their person, stand in front of the disarmament room, one opens the door and says after you, no the other says after you...

Doomsday Clock:

Symbolic clock face maintained since 1947 the
clock now reads six minutes to midnight.
Since its creation the clock has changed 19 times.
Originally, the analogy represented the
threat of Global Nuclear War, but since 2007
also reflected climate-change.
48. Anonymous says:
19 Apr 2011 04:37:53 PM

I tried to recall the good years of the 50th in the USA by finding out what happened to the payback by Germany. Interesting what I found out. Somehow it looks like we are headed the same way now with China to whom we owe the money. Will we also try to stop payment? Than what? Does the US has to start a war?
49. Commenter identity confirmed Bill says:
23 Apr 2011 10:18:36 AM

Years ago George Putnam was a TV reporter
at the end of his broadcast, he would point to the United States Flag, and say here's to
a better, stronger America. Reporters don't even do that anymore.
The post-war years late 1940s and 50s early 60s America was the world Superpower, with
overwhelming military and political power, a two ocean navy, large air force and troops stationed throughout the world and the nukes to back it all up.
How would the world be today, if the US and its Allies just swatted those little flies
supported Nationalist China, and ended the
Korean problem early. What's the old saying
better the other guy gets hit with the
chainmail fist, then me. In the world's eyes, we had respect.
50. Anonymous says:
27 Apr 2011 01:55:19 AM

wasnt the final surrender in march 1951 as hitler killed him self and that was when new parlement came in
51. Anonymous says:
21 Aug 2011 06:14:22 AM

excellent stuff! very informative. as an ex-brit baor soldier will keep in touch.
52. Commenter identity confirmed Bill says:
21 Aug 2011 12:11:49 PM


WDMs The weapons of mass destruction, the
father of them all was the Tsar Bomba, or the King of Bombs.
On October 30, 1961 The USSR wanted to detonate this weapon equal to 100,000,000 tons of TNT, but was scaled back to 50 Megatons.


The weapon was so powerful that a person could receive 3rd degree burns at a distance of 100km (62 miles away).
It was the latest thing in nuclear fission, I paid attention in science class say, I'm no scientist and don't know about the technical tidbits, but the spark was there to keep me interested, but its still way over my head so we won't go into technical thingamabobs of how the *** thing works.


Getting back to the bomb, the mushroom cloud reached an altitude of 40 miles! and the shock wave could be felt 500 miles away, just think about that.


The Tsar Bomb was a Political statement by the USSR it was just another way of saying see what we have.
The Cold War, was an arms race between the USA and the USSR, and who had the bigger bang...both sides deployed nuclear weapons, and both sides maintained its weapons of mass destruction.
Megatons sounds scary and powerful, but its the measurement to describe the power of nuclear weapons, not its active weight.


I look upon myself as a practical man who has kept up with technology and scientific advancements, that are known of.
However, it has been in other fields that I've nurtured and been sucessful.

I realize that some care nothing about fact or reality but I hope to give them a moment of clarity that's why I try to provide the best information, but some I presume will always be the historical illiterate, and have their beliefs.
I'm thinking here of the ancient roman poet
Horace: "The Arts must Teach and Delight"

Quintus Horatius Flaccus 65 BC to 8 BC
53. Bill says:
8 Sep 2011 07:11:55 PM


The aircraft that delivered Tsar Bomba(Ivan)
was a specially modified Tupolev Tu-95(Bear)the carry the weapon weighted 27 metric tons the Bear, was designed as a four-engine, swept wing, turboprop-powered Strategic bomber.

The bomber was followed by Tupolev Tu-16(Badger)bombers acting as chase planes, to take photos and measure radiation levels.
The Bear was given special reflective paint to protect it against the heat from the firebll.
The weapon was released by parachute to slow its decent, giving the bomber enough time to get out of the blast range.
Ivan was dropped at 34,500 feet, and was detonated at 13,000 feet above ground.


The Bear will continue to serve both the Russian Air Force and Russian Naval Air Force
until 2040. First entered service in 1956 that would be a career of 84 years!


The latest variant of the Bear,is the Tu-95MS
the aircraft are back on patrols, that were resumed after 15 years after they had been terminated.
NATO fighters intercept the Tu-95s as they patrol and fly missions along NATO airspace.
54. Commenter identity confirmed Bill says:
12 Sep 2011 07:51:59 PM


Like the Russian Tupolev Tu-95 Bear, the B-52
is the versatile warrior and still mean.
Its seen that, done this and been there, the youngest B-52 is 45 years old and the fleet has been upgraded over the past decades.
The B-52 has been the backbone of the USAF.

During the Cold War, the bombers were always on 15 minute alert and airborne 24/7 for any strike against the USSR.


The B-52 has been improved, upgraded with new
avionics and other modifications to the airframe. Crews that fly her today, weren't even born when some of them were built.
Like the Bear, the B-52 will continue in service until the year 2040.
Both the Tu-95 and the B-52 are National Icons, both are survivors, and still compete in modern global air power.

I'm no expert, but once again I thank the editor/ww2db for allowing me to leave these comments.
55. Anonymous says:
2 Jan 2012 02:32:56 PM

Do German Military Forces from WWII Era Recieve Money and Pensions and Medical care> ie Sure millions Have PTSD and Wounds Preventing them from ever working after the War. Some german soldiers Airmen were wounded Several Times, So did the postwar govt in germany Have the equivelant of what U.S. veterans Have ie VA medical care and service connected Pensions. It's hard to believe BUT if you or I had been born in germany in 1925 we would have been required to serve in the German WWII Military without Quetion.
56. Samir S. Halabi says:
6 May 2012 01:51:49 AM

I want to know why any over enthusiastic Channel islander either in the police force or any other authoritive person responsible for handing over Jews to the German invasion force of the channel islands were not brought to justice by the british after the war. I also want to know why any of the german officers responsible for the deportations of Jews from the british channel islands weren't shot by the British forces for their evil enactment of singling out those poor jewish victims for their ultimate death in the Nazi extermination camps.
57. Commenter identity confirmed Bill says:
23 May 2012 06:28:23 PM



More information about the Soviet Tsar Bomb
or "Big Ivan", this weapon was the latest thing in nuclear fission.
Big Ivan was 57,000,000 tons of TNT and it weighted in at 27 tons! so one ton of weight is 1,000 kilograms/2200lbs, all units used in physics are in meteric and even the term Megatons sounds scary to an sane person.

The Documentry: Trinity & Beyond shows the
detonation of the Tsar Bomb from declassified
Soviet archives. As far as I know, its still available on DVD.
The background music is from "The Planets" composed by Gustav Holst, the movement for
the Tsar Bomb is Mars: The Bringer of War, say I'm no expert in physics, so all this is way, beyond me, all I know this bomb was a real Block Buster!


Big Ivan was a three-stage super nuke, that used a fission bomb to compress another good old thermonuclear secondary and uses the energy from the explosion to compress a much larger additional hydrogen thermonuclear stage, gotta stop that's enough physics for today.


If anyone has more information post it here, the bomb was 3,800 times more powerful than the Hiroshima bomb dropped on Japan during WWII. The Tsar Bomb was a statement weapon by the USSR, it was big and heavy as far as known onLy two were made a mockup and a test weapon.
The fireball was 2.3 km/1.4 miles and the blast radius was 13km/8miles for total aera destruction. When the bomb went off, the temperature was millions of degrees and the shockwave broke windows 900km/560miles away
and traveled around the earth three times!


The Tsar Bomb was designed as a One Hundred Megaton device, and if it would have been detonated everything within a 48km/30mile area would have been vaporised, everything within a 195km/120mile area would have been toast/incinerated in the fireball! so the weapon was scaled down to just Fify Megatons


The USSR ended its voluntary moratorium the USA followed up with nuclear tests of its own. Both the USSR and the USA continued
weapons testing. These weapons were more of a deterrent by both sides any nuclear attack
by either side, and millions and millions would have died, and millions more in other countries, that had nothing to do with such a war would also suffer as well.
Civilization as we know it would end, and much of humanity would have been destroyed.


The USSR and the USA continued development
with nuclear weapons, the designs improved that made them smaller and lighter, each side employed and found ways for its ICBMs, SLBMs and free fall weapons carried by aircraft, to carry more warheads, or MIRVs
to carpet bomb a target, this would lead to much greated ground damage.


The Second World War, was world-wide and the most destructive war of all time, the dead are estimated between fifty to over one hundred million, from all causes. Technology and the advances of Super-science, saw the use of weapons never before seen on such a massive scale.

Nations were destroyed and its people were killed on a scale never seen in any war this went on 24/7 for six years. The war ended by the use of the ultimate weapon, the Atomic bomb.


With the end of WWII, Europe was split into two spheres of influence, the nations of Eastern Europe were controlled by the USSR, and fell under the sphere of communism.

The nations of Western Europe were independent, Europe was rebuilt over decades and became the front lines during the Cold War both sides formed military alliances, the East formed The Warsaw Pact, the West formed NATO along with Political and other support. Both sides maintained nuclear and conventual and weapons, this balance of power was maintained for over forty years...


58. Commenter identity confirmed Bill says:
16 Feb 2013 03:41:11 PM


Speculation,remote possibilities and conspiracies
have been discussed since the end of WWII,did you know operation paperclip and lusty transferred over 110,000 tons of scientific papers,documents, blueprints and other technical research data out of Germany to the United States,that are known of. How much other information did the wartime allies capture?


After World War II, and through the Cold War, and
up to the present day both the US, USSR the
Russian Federation,France and Britain still hold classified wartime documents.
What secrets are still listed as classified and locked away in archives, over the decades many documents have been declared declassified, while others have never or will ever be revealed.


Did the Nazis ever have the "Bomb", if so it was one of the best kept secrets of WWII. It would be one of the really dark secrets of a defeated Third Reich.
If the Nazis did have the "Bomb", did they murder all or most of the scientist,technicians and others involved to keep the project secret. If so
who go there hands on it? those that were captured and survived were able tell the tale.
Both the USA and the USSR took the scientist to continue their post-war research,were they under secrecy to say nothing of what they saw or knew.


Maybe one day perhaps in one hundred years or more into the future the secrets of WWII will be revealed, than again there are secrets that for one reason or another, will always remain secret.
You'll have the secrets of the Cold War and the years afterward, and the story continues.


Before the truth, Governments live by lies and bamboozling extractions. The layers of secrecy are there to protect the living the dead and deeds done in the name of National Security,with files stamped not to be opened until the year...


Government have archives and documents that are listed as Top Secret, Secret, Confidential, Classified, Restricted, Need-to-Know, Sensitive, Declassified and Pending. It would could take centuries to find the truth...

It has always been, and will continue to be as long as I can, bring historical facts and personal speculation about the Second World War.

Once again I thank the editor/ww2db for allowing me to leave my comments.
59. Commenter identity confirmed Bill says:
20 Feb 2013 03:53:29 PM


In 1938 the Germans made a physics discovery the uranian atom split in two, when placed next to radioactive material.


During World War Two the race was on to build and use mankinds most destructive weapon. The major wartime countries the United States, Britain, Soviet Union, Japan and Italy had programs both large and small.


The Italians worked on a heavy water program for the Germans, outside of this nothing pratical.

The Japanese had knowledge of nuclear fission their work suffered many problems, and has been reported the program never proceeded beyond the laboratory stage.
In 1946 it has been alleged, that Japan tested a nuclear weapon, but this is still speculation be it true or false what documents are still held as secret in archives.


Historians in Germany have uncovered a sixty year old drawing that has been held in a private archive showing a rough schematic of a German Nuclear Bomb. However, it doesn't imply the Nazis built or were close to a working weapon.

Its possible but still speculation that maybe the Nazis could have been a few steps closer to building a weapon, than was previously believed.

In the decades since the end of World War II some
documents have surfaced in archives outside of Government held files.


In 1942 a Heinkel He177 bomber was flown to the
Letov factory in Occupied Czechoslovakia for special modifications. Was the bomber modified to carry the German Uranian bomb? but this sounds strange since the Germans didn't have a bomb design or knew how large one would be.

Could it have been modified to carry something else another type of "Wunderwaffen" could it have been possible that the Germans had or were in the process of building a "Tall Boy" type bomb like the British 22,000 pound Earthquake/Tall Boy...

Did you know most of the entire Apollo program was German in design scientists and engineers had their start in Germany's Wunderwaffen programs.


Canadian designers and engineers who worked on the cancelled Avro CF-105 Arrow, relocated to the United States and also worked on the Apollo program...

I thank the editor/ww2db for allowing me to leave my personal knowledge. It is my hope that the information that I leave, will inspire today's students to become future Historians, Engineers and Technicians.
60. Commenter identity confirmed Bill says:
22 Feb 2013 05:09:41 PM


Since the end of World War II Speculation and Conspiracies continue about the possibility of the Germans having the Bomb. The debate continues about the role of German Scientists, Engineers and Technicians in that program.
US and British Intelligence captured many of the leading personnel, to learn about the Atomic Bomb
project, many historians believe a few of the leading Scientists could have delayed building the weapon through what many believe could have been scientific sabotage walking that fine line between slow step by step development and having some technical reverses, and buying time for the
a few of those scientists who believed the defeat of the Third Reich was a matter of time.


Norwegian Resistance Fighters sabotaged and sank the ferry carrying the last supply of heavy water being transported to Germany.
This loss convinced many German scientists that it would be unable to advance nuclear research with the 2 1/2 tons of heavy-water on hand, and prevented a self-sustaining nuclear reactor from becoming operational before the end of the war.


The Nazis spent over 1,000,000 million reichmarks
vs the United State spending 2,000,000,000 billion
developing the Bomb. The Manhattan Project had over 250,000 people involved and the resources of the USA.
The German program was small by comparison and it has been estimated as many as 100-200 scientists were involved working on the bomb, with perhaps a few thousand engineers and technicians but we'll never really know the depth of the German program.


It has been argued by me, as a student of history and having no scientific credentials nevertheless
history doesn't deny that the German atomic bomb project didn't develop a working weapon where the US program did and was successful in using the atomic bomb against Japan.


The stuff science fiction is made of: Electric guns, Cold bombs, Fuel-air bombs, Oxygen bombs and other suppressed and secret weapons of Nazi Germany...

However, could it have been possible that the Germans did have a bomb with other scientific teams working on the same problem if so what happened to them? of course this is all fantastic speculation that a such a weapon fell into Allied hands slipped out of Germany modified and later dropped over Japan, if so it would have been the greatest secret of World War II, and to the entire world.

The truth about wartime German technology is still filed away in Government archives finding the truth will be the final chapter of World War II.

Specter or Spectre: Definition Something that still haunts, apparition, mental image of something unpleasant or menacing.
Taken from the Latin word Spectrum
61. Commenter identity confirmed Bill says:
24 Feb 2013 10:40:29 AM


At the end of World War II, the Americans and the other Allies searched the German Patent Office while other finds of information were captured all over Germany and former occupied countries in Europe, and took whatever they could find.

Back to the patent office sources estimate the find weighted in the tons of scientific reports, blueprints and other research data, just from this one facility alone.
All this information took between thirty to forty boxcars to fill. This was only one location in Germany the hunt was going on all over post-war Europe, along with the captured German Scientists Engineers, Technicians and anyone else who had any secrets or information.

An old saying that's fitting after the defeat of Nazi Germany.
"Those who know anything, say nothing. And those who don't know anything say everything."
62. Kevin says:
11 Mar 2013 07:09:42 AM


Is there a list of German soldiers that were holding out in St Nazaire at the end of WWII? My father was there with the US Army? I have an item taken from the surrending German Army with a name carved on it. It would be interesting to find a match and possibly find him or his family from that.

63. Bob says:
1 Jun 2013 09:04:53 PM

Bill, despite your vast postings, you've completely missed the true horrors Germany brought on the rest of the world. The mass murder of tens of millions, and the rape, pillage and total destruction of entire countries in ways so evil that they can not be comprehended. The compete sacking of entire continents so that Germany's elite could live in style. And the lack of consequences for the tens of thousands of German killers who escaped punshment after the war. The real truth is that they were the most efficient killing and robbing machine the world has ever seen and they were immensely proud of what they were doing. They had to be defeated, and millions of people around the world suffered and struggled to rid this world of the most evil nation ever known. The blood of millions of my murdered Jewish ancestors and the deaths of tens of thousands of Americans require that this never be forgotten.
64. Commenter identity confirmed Bill says:
15 Jul 2013 09:41:09 PM


Keep reading my comments here at ww2db. I'm aware of the Nazi Horrors through Europe and what it took to defeat Nazi Germany.


HBO Film available on DVD Starring Kenneth Branach as Chief of Security Reinhard Heydrich and Stanley Tucci as SS Major Adolf Eichmann.

Winter 1942 a special meeting took place later known as the Wannsee Conference comprised of SS Officers and Government ministers, that sealed the fate of millions. Hitler's blueprint for the "Final Solution"
65. kay williford thorpe says:
11 Sep 2013 11:28:15 AM

My dad was in the oss and actually "received" the surrender via morse code.
66. Commenter identity confirmed Bill says:
6 Oct 2014 02:52:38 PM


During the Cold War both the USA & USSR armed themselves with conventional forces and nuclear weapons that at that time, they were only able to be delivered by four engine propeller-driven aircraft so how much was enough to do the job.


During this early phase of the Cold War it was based on the number of bombers each side had, and the famous phrase "The Bomber Gap" was born since that time, declassified documents have estimated the USA needed 204 Atomic Bombs to destroy the USSR, this was all based upon contemporary 1950s information.
Some targets would need between one to six bombs to destroy many of the of cities and industrial centers along with secondary targets even some specialist felt this assessment was too low the casualties would be in the millions and millions.


Back up bombs would be needed, as some would be duds while others would fail to destroy the target. Everything was factored in spite of the fact that some bombers would carry the bombs, while others would be decoys some would be shot down others have mechanical problems and abort, run short of fuel miss the target due to weather or other causes.


The USSR was planning the same thing how best to strike when, where and how and how many bombs to use. The red air force had the Tu-4 Bull a copy of the American B-29 (for more information, about the B-29 click to bombers, scroll down to the B-29 here at ww2db) however the Tu-4(Bull)wasn't capable of bombing the USA, but it could if necessary fly one way missions to the US Mainland or hit targets in Western Europe.

How many bombs the soviets had at that time remains a secret only the Kremlin and the White House know for sure. When such bombing missions were launched, the soviets would run into many of the same operational losses as the USAF.


In the shadow of Dr. Strangelove when the ICBM's
SLBM's and IRBM's came operational the game changed propelled driven bombers were replaced my jet bombers even fighters could deliver a single nukes, still this force could be recalled in a crisis if necessary, the ICBM however, changed everything once launched was on its way to its target. Both the USA & USSR realized its cities could be reached within minutes and not hours.


Did you know that Santa Monica, California, USA outside Los Angeles, California declared itself a nuclear free zone during the Cold War, what were these people thinking? How many nukes do you thing the soviets had targeted for LA? and little Santa Monica escapes, I don't think so...


Improvement in missile design led the way for the MIRV or Multiple Independent Reentry Vehicle this weapon drops multiple nuclear bombs over the target.


The high number of early Atomic bombs carried by bombers needed to destroy a city, still applied to the number of ICBM's needed to carry multiple warheads to destroy a target.


ICBM's are complex systems what's that old saying
"What Can Go Wrong Will" so for argument's sake
lets look at a "What If Scenario" take twenty
ICBM's some will fail to launch, encounter heavy storms, navigation failure, weapons fail to release, warhead fails to hit target, lost in reentry destroys warhead or burns up, others could be lost due to nuclear onboard explosion failure of warhead to separate.


Some missiles will get through of the twenty that were launched, or failed to launch maybe nine made it to the target and lets say they each carried twelve warheads that's one hundred and eight bombs! This scenario applied to the launch of twenty land-based ICBM's and second strike missiles to be launched and don't forget those SLBM's and IRBM's...


If I had known all this information as a kid growing up in 1950's Los Angeles, California and remembering those air raid drills, getting under a wooden desk thinking I'll be protected, I'd really laugh my butt off knowing that my little butt would be blown to bits.
Scary to think as a child growing up after WWII with a whole life ahead, some people were really thinking up this stuff and still more people behind them thinking up still more stuff...


Today on the big screen at NORAD located today in
the Cheyenne Mountain Complex we'll see triangles for defensive missiles and black dots for offensive missiles...

67. Commenter identity confirmed Bill says:
8 Oct 2014 09:51:02 AM


At the end of World War II the United States was the only superpower in control of nuclear weapons
operated by the USAAF, and the Boeing B-29 to deliver it. In 1947 the USAAF became independent of the US Army and was known as the USAF, that inherited a vast collection of WWII aircraft many of which were scrapped at wars end, while others were operated into the late 1940s and early 50s.


The USAF operated WWII Boeing B-29s and the improved B-50 based on the B-29 airframe along with the Convair B-36 Peacemaker. These bombers were the USA's first-line of nuclear deterrent
however, by the late 50s and early 60s they were retired and replaced with a new generation of jet bombers, the Boeing B-47 Stratojet the Boeing
B-52 Stratofortess and the Convair B-58 Hustler


Even the US Navy wanted to get into the nuke business by creating its own generation of nuclear capable jet aircraft operating from both land bases and aircraft carriers.
Nuclear Ballistic Missile known as SLBMs carried by submarines would come in later.


During WWII the red air force lacked any type of
strategic bomber force and was a tactical airpower
its only four-engine bomber was the Petlyakov Pe-8
with just enough range to reach Berlin.


Three Boeing B-29s made emergency landings on Russian territory the bombers were interned and crews later released under great secrecy as not to
anger the Japanese as the Soviets weren't at war with Japan at this time.


Did you know, that five B-29s made it to soviet territory one crashed crew saved and the other landed crew and aircraft released by the soviets,
as the USSR was now at war with Japan. The USSR
had those three B-29s already, so what more info could be gained.
Back to those three bombers they were studied and test flown a decision was made by Stalin to copy the B-29 down to the last detail. Within a few years, Tupolev's design team created a reverse engineered copy of the Boeing B-29, known as the Tu-4, NATO code word (Bull) that gave the USSR a nuclear capable bomber. later improvements to the design created both the Tupolev Tu-80 and Tu-85 bombers.
By the 1960s these propeller-driven bombers were
retired and replaced with new jet powered bombers
Tupolev Tu-16 Badger, Tu-95 Bear, Myasishchev M-4/3M Bison, and the M-50 Bounder. The Soviet's
operated SLBM carrying submarines, land-based ICBMs and IRBMs.


France and Britain also had nuclear forces not as large as the US or the USSR but they were still looked upon as a deterrent.
Both countries operated submarine SLBMs the British retired its land-based missiles, but the French still operates its land-based forces.

During the 50s and 60s both the British & French
operated nuclear capable jet bombers, The French
had the Dassault Mirage IV the British had its V-Bomber Force, the Avro Vulcan, Vickers Valiant and the Handley Page Victor. Like the US & USSR
these aircraft were later replaced with newer generation weapons.
68. Commenter identity confirmed Bill says:
11 Oct 2014 08:39:02 PM


Both the United States and the Soviet Union built
up vast stockpiles of nuclear weapons. The cost of (R&D) Research & Development and deployment have maintained the balance of power between the two Superpowers. Even after the collapse of the USSR the balance of power with Russia continues, the production lines are open its business as usual.


The U.S. Bomb 1945

The Russian Bomb 1949

The British Bomb 1952

The French Bomb 1960

The Communist Chinese Bomb 1964

In spite of a changing world other nations want a piece of the nuclear pie. Documents filed away
dealing with nuclear policy covering this threat range into the hundreds of thousands.


Its always been in the shadows, the hush, hush Neutron Bomb. Its been developed, its been built and its been tested. Is this "Ace-In-The Hole" weapon stored away in secret bunkers known only to those nations that have them...


The insanity of it all the total madness, so I'm not going to argue on this. If the bomb doesn't get you the others will its enough to frighten any sane person. Next to the Atomic Bomb these weapons have also been a curse on mankind...


U.S. National Atomic Museum located in Albuquerque
New Mexico.

Russian Atomic Bomb Museum located at Sarov 400km
from Moscow. This museum was inspired by the U.S.
National Atomic Museum.


69. Commenter identity confirmed Bill says:
16 Oct 2014 01:49:12 PM


Did you know during the 1956 Hungarian uprising
Tu-4's from the Soviet 43rd Air Army were made ready to bomb Budapest,Hungary the bombers flew over Romania However, on there way to the target, at the last moment the bombers were recalled by higher command...


By 1949 the Soviet's had the bomb and the Tu-4 to
carry the weapon it was estimated that by 1949 the soviet's had enough Tu-4's and bombs to carry out atomic bombing missions. During the course of its production life, 847 Tu-4's were produced.
With any type of military aircraft especially
four-engine strategic bombers both sides had to maintain combat ready aircraft.
How many bombers were able to fly combat bombing missions, training, grounded due to lack of spare parts, maintenance or other technical problems.


The US Air Force maintained the 509th Composite
Group that was a nuclear-capable bomb group B-29s
were on duty. The new Strategic Air Command of the USAF played an important part in those early Cold War years.
Both the Russian Tu-4 and the American Boeing B-29s were the first in a new kind of war able to take nuclear weapons to the enemy. Even before the ballistic and cruise missile, the bomber was the show of force. If it was necessary to take the war to the enemy, SAC's entire stockpile of
nuclear weapons would be used in a single attack against the USSR. Both sides had its own plans of attacking the enemy.


During the Cold War both the UNITED STATES and the SOVIET UNION built vast stockpiles of nuclear weapons able to be delivered by tactical aircraft strategic bombers, ballistic missiles, surface ships and submarine launched missiles. Both sides maintained tactical nuclear artillery rounds for its ground forces.
70. Commenter identity confirmed Bill says:
26 Feb 2015 08:48:19 AM


Did you know that both the United States and the USSR experimented with the idea of a nuclear powered bomber. How many bombers and bombs were enough.


The USAF modified a Covair B-36 under the new designation of NB-36 the aircraft had an onboard nuclear reactor, but wasn't powered by the reactor itself. The NB-36 made test flights and was later scrapped. The main problem was the heavy shielding to protect aircraft and crew from radiation and whether the a/c could takeoff and operate with the extra weight.


Like its American counterpart, the Russians also
experimented with an airborne nuclear reactor a
Tupolev Tu-95 was modified to carry a nuclear reactor, like the US aircraft, it wasn't powered by the reactor itself the Russians ran into the same problem as the Americans heavy shielding to protect aircraft and its crew. The Tu-95 made about 40 test flights. Both the US and USSR later shelved the idea of a nuclear powered bomber in the 1960s.
71. Commenter identity confirmed Bill says:
29 Feb 2016 01:55:18 PM



Traditions return torchlights, drums, bugles and precision drills are professional However, such parades and drills are not like the once mighty Wehrmacht.


Prussian in the Bundeswehr is long gone, but did you known, such traditions were kept in the East German Army, it was Europe's last professional standing armies. During parades the Bundeswehr
still use the wartime Mauser K98 rifles, the best of such weapons are kept for such drills.

The Bundeswehr doesn't carry on the traditions of the Kaiser's or the Wehrmacht a once divided Germany continues to overcome many obstacles for a once again united nation.
But one wonders what impact the old Preussen Gloria Military March pronounced (proyssen) would have today...


Traditions of yesterday continue to live on, the symbol of the Bundeswehr is the Iron Cross and it has been a military award since 1813, the ceremonial of recruits and the ceremonial vow of recruits pledge and to serve the Federal Republic of Germany.


The goose Step once used by the Kaiser's and the Wehrmacht is forbidden within the Bundeswehr it was replaced with a marching step similar to the USA and other western armies.

However, the NVA or Nationale Volksarmee of East Germany used a modified goose step they called the drill step, and other military drills and formations. Just going so far, but not so far as to get the Russian Bear's attention. Whatever they did, they always had to look over their shoulder.

Did you know that many countries in the world today such as in South America, Africa, Middle East, East Asia, Southeast Asia, Central Asia and Eastern Europe use the goose step in one form or another for drill and ceremonies...

I thank the editor/ww2db for allowing me to share my knowledge of military history...


Tensions between the USA and the U.S.S.R.
created the two Germany's along with different
military alliance NATO and the Warsaw Pact.
This military balance of power was maintained until the collapse of the USSR and made the Warsaw Pact redundant allowing former pact countries to go there own way, without the chains of communism.
With German reunification the (NVA) Nationale Volksarmee was abolished many of its personnel
were retired or absorbed into the Bundeswehr its equipment retired, sold, scrapped or transferred to the Federal Republic/Bundeswehr for a limited time.

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Churchill waving to crowds at Whitehall, London, England, United Kingdom on the day he announced the war with Germany had been won, 8 May 1945
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