29 Aug 1842

China
  • Hong Kong was ceded to the United Kingdom as the result of the First Opium War per the Treaty of Nanjing. ww2dbase [Nanjing | CPC]
13 Aug 1913

China
  • Haiqi participated in the battle in Nanjing, China during the Second Chinese Revolution, flying the flag of the Beiyang Government. ww2dbase [Haiqi | Nanjing | CPC]
1 May 1926

China
  • Hiroshi Nemoto arrived in Nanjing, China as a military attachĂ©. ww2dbase [Hiroshi Nemoto | Nanjing | CPC]
24 Mar 1927

China
  • The Nanjing Incident: US and British Royal Navy warships opened fire on rioting Chinese Nationalists and Communists who were looting the property of foreign residents in the treaty port. ww2dbase [Nanjing | AC]
10 Apr 1927

China
  • He Yingqin led troops in an anti-communist purge in Nanjing, China. ww2dbase [He Yingqin | Nanjing | CPC]
12 Apr 1927

China
  • He Yingqin's troops clashed with communists in Nanjing, China; there were several deaths on both sides. ww2dbase [He Yingqin | Nanjing | CPC]
18 Apr 1927

China
  • Chinese Nationalists set up a government in Nanjing, China. ww2dbase [Nanjing | CPC]
Photo(s) dated 18 Apr 1927
Chiang Kaishek, Hu Hanmin, Cai Yuanpei, Wu Zhihui, Li Shiceng, Deng Zeru, Gan Naiguang and others at the founding of the Nationalist Chinese Nanjing government, China, 18 Apr 1927
10 Oct 1928

China
  • The Republic of China Military Academy in Nanjing, China created a command for the training of pilots. Lieutenant General Zhang Jingyu was placed in command with Li Ruyan as the deputy. Cadets would not join the program until Feb 1929. ww2dbase [Nanjing | CPC]
28 Feb 1929

China
  • Cadets entered the pilot training program at the Republic of China Military Academy in Nanjing, China. They were divided into two classes. ww2dbase [Nanjing | CPC]
2 Jul 1929

China
  • Lieutenant General Huang Bingheng was named the commanding officer of the pilot training program at the Republic of China Military Academy in Nanjing, China, relieving Lieutenant General Zhang Jingyu. ww2dbase [Nanjing | CPC]
15 Dec 1929

China
  • Cadets of the pilot training program at the Republic of China Military Academy in Nanjing, China was ordered to participate in the Central Plains War by flying reconnaissance missions. ww2dbase [Nanjing | CPC]
28 Jan 1930

China
  • HMS Hermes arrived in Nanjing, China with the British Minister to China, Sir Miles Lampson, aboard. ww2dbase [Hermes | Nanjing | CPC]
2 Mar 1930

China
  • HMS Hermes departed Nanjing, China for Shanghai, China. ww2dbase [Hermes | Nanjing | CPC]
1 Apr 1931

China
  • The pilot training program at the Republic of China Military Academy in Nanjing, China was separated from the command of the academy in preparation for an independent command. ww2dbase [Nanjing | CPC]
13 Jun 1931

China
  • Lieutenant General Mao Bangchu was named the commanding officer of the pilot training program at the Republic of China Military Academy in Nanjing, China, relieving Lieutenant General Huang Bingheng. ww2dbase [Nanjing | CPC]
15 Dec 1931

China
  • Lin Sen was appointed by the Nationalist Party to become the President of the Republic of China after the resignation of Chiang Kaishek. ww2dbase [Lin Sen | Nanjing | CPC]
28 Dec 1931

China
  • Lin Sen stepped down as the head of the Legislative Yuan of the Republic of China. ww2dbase [Lin Sen | Nanjing | CPC]
25 Jan 1935

Photo(s) dated 25 Jan 1935
Wang Jingwei, Lin Sen, and Italian Ambassador to China Vincenzo Lojacono shortly after Lojacono had delivered his credentials, Nanjing, China, 25 Jan 1935
19 Sep 1935

Photo(s) dated 19 Sep 1935
Dutch ambassador to China Baron G. de Vos van Steenwijk delivering his credentials, Nanjing, China, 19 Sep 1935
27 Jun 1936

Photo(s) dated 27 Jun 1936
Chiang Kaishek and General Long Yun of Yunnan Provincial Government in Nanjing, China, 27 Jun 1936
5 Sep 1936

China
  • Zang Xilan arrived at the Army Military Academy in Nanjing, China for physical examination as preparation for flight training. ww2dbase [Zang Xilan | Nanjing | CPC]
26 Dec 1936

China
  • Chiang Kiashek traveled from Xi'an to Nanjing in China. ww2dbase [Chiang Kaishek | Nanjing | CPC]
  • He Yingqin welcomed Chiang Kaishek's arrival after the conclusion of the Xi'an Incident at the airport of Nanjing, China. ww2dbase [He Yingqin | Nanjing | CPC]
27 Dec 1936

China
  • He Yingqin addressed a crowd of 200,000 people in a rally in Nanjing, China on behalf of Chiang Kaishek; the rally was held to celebrate Chiang's safe return after the Xi'an Incident. ww2dbase [He Yingqin | Nanjing | CPC]
18 Jan 1937

Photo(s) dated 18 Jan 1937
Wang Jingwei arriving at Ming Palace Airport, Nanjing, China, 18 Jan 1937, photo 2 of 2Wang Jingwei arriving at Ming Palace Airport, Nanjing, China, 18 Jan 1937, photo 1 of 2
11 Feb 1937

Photo(s) dated 11 Feb 1937
Song Meiling and Chiang Kaishek at the grand opening of Overseas Chinese Hostel, Nanjing, China, 11 Feb 1937
6 Mar 1937

Photo(s) dated 6 Mar 1937
Chiang Kaishek with Japanese ambassador Shigeru Kawagoe, Nanjing, China, 6 Mar 1937
10 Mar 1937

Photo(s) dated 10 Mar 1937
Chinese Foreign Minister Wang Chonghui (Wang Chung-hui) with German Ambassador to China Oskar Trautmann, Nanjing, China, 10 Mar 1937
9 Jul 1937

China
9 Aug 1937

China
  • A special national assembly was called at Nanjing, China, with representatives of both Nationalist and Communist Parties present, to discuss the war with Japan. ww2dbase [Nanjing | CPC]
15 Aug 1937

China
  • Japanese bombers conducted a raid on the Chinese capital city of Nanjing; it was the very first time this city was subjected to aerial bombing. ww2dbase [Bombing of Shanghai, Chongqing, and other Cities | Nanjing | CPC]
  • Arthur Chin and his 28th Pursuit Squadron was deployed to Chuyung Airfield near Nanjing, China. In the afternoon, he saw combat with aircraft of the Japanese Kisarazu Kokutai. He claimed two G3M bombers, but was not given credit; post-war studies in Chinese and Japanese records showed that he probably should have been given credit for the two victories. ww2dbase [Arthur Chin | Nanjing | CPC]
  • Wong Sun-sui, flying a P-26 fighter, shot down a Japanese G3M bomber over Nanjing, China; this was his first victory. ww2dbase [Wong Sun-sui | Nanjing | CPC]
  • Cen Zeliu, flying a CR.32 fighter, pursued and damaged a Japanese bomber south of Nanjing, China alongside of his flight leader Lieutenant Harry Low, but failed to shoot it down. ww2dbase [Cen Zeliu | Nanjing | CPC]
16 Aug 1937

China
  • 11 Japanese G3M bombers attacked a Chinese airfield near Nanjing, China. Fighters of Chinese 17th and 28th Pursuit Squadrons shot down 3 Japanese bombers; the Chinese lost 3 fighters in the engagement. ww2dbase [Nanjing | CPC]
  • Arthur Chin, flying a Hawk II fighter, damaged the Japanese bomber piloted by Lieutenant Osugi (Osugi would be forced to land in Korea due to damage) but was in turn damaged. He made a successful emergency landing in a field near Nanjing, China. ww2dbase [Arthur Chin | Nanjing | CPC]
17 Aug 1937

China
  • John Wong, flying a P-26 fighter, shot down Lieutenant Commander Nitta's G3M bomber northeast of Chuyung Airfield near Nanjing, China; Nitta was either killed during the crash, or, according to Japanese records, committed suicide after a crash landing. Shortly afterwards, Wong heavily damaged Lieutenant (jg) Watanabe's G3M bomber, followed by a joint victory over yet another G3M bomber (credit shared with Lieutenant Wong Tse-tsim). ww2dbase [John Wong | Nanjing | CPC]
10 Sep 1937

China
  • Yuan Baokang claimed a Japanese aircraft over Nanjing, China. ww2dbase [Yuan Baokang | Nanjing | CPC]
19 Sep 1937

China
  • Mao Yingchu, flying a Hawk III biplane fighter, claimed a D1A2 dive bomber, another D1A2 as a probable, and a third damaged over Nanjing, China. Later study of Japanese records revealed that Lieutenant Kawaguchi's 3-plane flight of 13th Air Group failed to return, so it was likely that Mao had actually shot down all three. ww2dbase [Mao Yingchu | Nanjing | CPC]
  • Wong Sun-sui, flying a P-26 fighter, attempted to attack multiple Japanese E8N aircraft which were shooting Lieutenant Liu Lan-ching who was descending to grounds near Nanjing, China via a parachute. Wong was in turn attacked by Pilot Officer 2nd Class Harada, flying an A5M fighter. Wong suffered fragment wounds to the left hand but was able to bail out safely. ww2dbase [Wong Sun-sui | Nanjing | CPC]
20 Sep 1937

China
  • Liu Cuigang, flying a Hawk III fighter, damaged a Japanese D1A1 dive bomber and shot down an E8N seaplane near Nanjing, China. Both Liu and his wingman Lieutenant Yuan Baokang each claimed an E8N shot down, but Japanese records showed only one lost. ww2dbase [Liu Cuigang | Nanjing | CPC]
21 Sep 1937

China
  • Prince Naruhiko ordered the Japanese Army Air Service to begin a renewed air offensive against the Chinese capital of Nanjing. ww2dbase [Battle of Nanjing and the Rape of Nanjing | Nanjing | CPC]
  • Yuan Baokang claimed a Japanese bomber over Nanjing, China; his fighter's fuel tank was punctured during the engagement but he was able to return to base safely. ww2dbase [Yuan Baokang | Nanjing | CPC]
22 Sep 1937

China
  • Liu Cuigang, flying a Hawk III fighter, shot down a Japanese D1A2 dive bomber near Nanjing, China. His wingman Lieutenant Yuan Baokang also claimed a D1A2 shot down, but Japanese records showed only one lost (from 13th Kokutai). ww2dbase [Liu Cuigang | Nanjing | CPC]
25 Sep 1937

China
  • Japanese bombers flew 95 sorties over Nanjing, China between 0930 and 1630 hours, dropping 500 bombs which caused more than 600 mostly civilian casualties. The National Central Hospital, which had a large red cross painted on the roof, was also damaged by bombs. ww2dbase [Bombing of Shanghai, Chongqing, and other Cities | Nanjing | CPC]
26 Sep 1937

China
  • Luo Yingde, flying a Hawk III fighter, successfully forced Shichiro Yamashita's A5M fighter down in Nanjing, China. Luo would ultimately convince Yamashita to defect to the Chinese, which aided the Chinese efforts to break Japanese tatical codes. ww2dbase [Luo Yingde | Nanjing | CPC]
12 Oct 1937

China
  • Liu Cuigang, flying a modified Hawk III fighter, shared the downing of two E8N seaplanes from seaplane carrier Kamoi over Nanjing, China in the morning. In the afternoon, he engaged in a fierce dogfight with a Japanese A5M fighter, ultimately downing it over a busy city district, which bolstered civilian morale. ww2dbase [Liu Cuigang | Nanjing | CPC]
16 Nov 1937

China
  • Chiang Kaishek ordered Chinese government ministries and agencies to depart from the capital city of Nanjing within the next three to four days. ww2dbase [Battle of Nanjing and the Rape of Nanjing | Nanjing | CPC]
  • Liu Cuigang's remains were buried at the Air Force Martyrs Cemetery on Purple Mountain in Nanjing, China. ww2dbase [Liu Cuigang | Nanjing | CPC]
20 Nov 1937

China
  • The order for Chinese government ministries to evacuate the capital city of Nanjing to Hankou, originally ordered by Chiang Kaishek on 16 Nov 1937, was publicly announced at 1200 hours. ww2dbase [Battle of Nanjing and the Rape of Nanjing | Nanjing | CPC]
22 Nov 1937

China
25 Nov 1937

China
  • From Nanjing, China, German businessman John Rabe sent a message to Adolf Hitler, appealing for the German leader to voice concern over the atrocities committed by the Japanese in China. ww2dbase [Battle of Nanjing and the Rape of Nanjing | Nanjing | CPC]
27 Nov 1937

China
  • During a press conference, Tang Shengzhi, the Commander-in-Chief of all forces in Nanjing, China, advised foreign residents in Nanjing to depart but stressed that his troops would defend the city against the impending Japanese attack. ww2dbase [Battle of Nanjing and the Rape of Nanjing | Nanjing | CPC]
1 Dec 1937

China
  • The Imperial General Headquarters in Tokyo, Japan ordered the Japanese Central China Area Army to advance toward Nanjing, China. On the same day, several top Chinese cabinet level advisers departed from the capital. ww2dbase [Battle of Nanjing and the Rape of Nanjing | Nanjing | CPC]
2 Dec 1937

China
  • The officials of the Nanjing Branch of the Palace Museum of China ordered the treasures stored at the Taoist monastery Chaotian Gong, which had arrived from Beiping and Shanghai in Dec 1936, to be moved westward ahead of the Japanese attack. ww2dbase [Battle of Nanjing and the Rape of Nanjing | Nanjing | CPC]
3 Dec 1937

China
  • Japanese 16th Division and 9th Division began an attack on Chinese 83rd Corps and 66th Corps east of Nanjing, China. ww2dbase [Battle of Nanjing and the Rape of Nanjing | Nanjing | CPC]
  • Lieutenant Yue Yiqin of the 22nd Pursuit Squadron of the Chinese 4th Pursuit Group, flying Hawk III biplane fighter designated IV-1, attempted to attack a group of Japanese Army bombers escorted by Japanese Navy A5M carrier fighters, but was in turn heavily damaged by one of the A5M fighters. He was killed when his parachute failed to open after bailing out near Nanjing, China. ww2dbase [Yue Yiqin | Nanjing | CPC]
7 Dec 1937

China
  • Chiang Kaishek departed Nanjing, China by plane. The civilian administration of the city was left to an International Committee led by John Rabe. Outside the city, several villages were set ablaze by Chinese troops to prevent them from being used by the approaching Japanese troops. ww2dbase [Battle of Nanjing and the Rape of Nanjing | Chiang Kaishek | Nanjing | CPC]
  • Luo Yingde served as one of the fighter escorts for Chiang Kaishek's aircraft, which evacuated the Chinese leader from the capital of Nanjing, China to Hankou. ww2dbase [Luo Yingde | Nanjing | CPC]
8 Dec 1937

China
  • Prince Yasuhiko arrived outside of Nanjing, China. ww2dbase [Yasuhiko | Nanjing | CPC]
  • Chinese Air Force squadrons departed Nanjing, China for airfields to the west, leaving the capital city without fighter defense and with little modern communications equipment. ww2dbase [Battle of Nanjing and the Rape of Nanjing | Nanjing | CPC]
9 Dec 1937

China
  • In the morning, Japanese troops reached the outskirts of Nanjing, China. At 1200 hours, Japanese aircraft dropped leaflets into the walled city, urging surrender within 24 hours, with the offered terms expiring at 1200 hours on the following day. Chinese commanding officer Tang Shengzhi publicly rejected the demand, but in private he, urged on by the international community in Nanjing, considered negotiating for a ceasefire; such negotiation would be pending Chiang Kaishek's approval. ww2dbase [Battle of Nanjing and the Rape of Nanjing | Nanjing | CPC]
10 Dec 1937

China
  • Chiang Kaishek rejected Tang Shengzhi's request to negotiate with the Japanese for an evacuation of Nanjing, China. Having received no response to the ultimatum issued on the previous day that expired at noon, the Japanese began the assault at 1300 hours. General Iwane Matsui's order to attack included the wording "[y]ou are to observe military regulations to the letter, to set an example for the future.... Anyone who loots or starts a fire, even accidentally, will be severely punished." ww2dbase [Battle of Nanjing and the Rape of Nanjing | Nanjing | CPC]
12 Dec 1937

China
  • At 0300 hours, General Tang Shengzhi, commanding officer of Chinese forces in Nanjing, China, having learned that Japanese naval vessels were heading up the Yangtze River, ordered his officers to prepare a small group of men to retreat across the river while the bulk would gather for an offensive to break out of the Japanese line. During the day, troops of the Japanese 114th Division wooed 1,500 Chinese troops into surrendering at the southern side of the city wall, promising to spare them their lives; they were all executed by the end of the following day. In the afternoon, Japanese bombers sank the American gunboat USS Panay in Nanjing, China at 1554 hours. At 1700 hours, Tang met with his officers again (several of whom were absent, having fled the city without permission) and was told that the Japanese were advancing faster than anticipated. He decided to increase the size of the Yangtze River evacuation to 5 divisions of troops. Tang would depart via the Yijiang Gate on the northern side of the city at 2100 hours, crossing the river on a small launch. ww2dbase [Battle of Nanjing and the Rape of Nanjing | Nanjing | CPC]
Photo(s) dated 12 Dec 1937
Japanese troops attacking the Zhonghua Gate of the Nanjing city wall with a field gun, China, 12 Dec 1937Japanese Type 94 tankettes attacking the Zhonghua Gate of the Nanjing city wall, China, 12 Dec 1937Type 94 Te-Ke tankettes and infantry attacking a gate of the Nanjing city wall, China, circa 12 Dec 1937Japanese artillery bombarding the Nanjing city wall, China, circa 12 Dec 1937
13 Dec 1937

China
  • The Japanese Sabae Regiment occupied the Guanghua Gate in Nanjing, China after two days of heavy fighting. In the afternoon, Chinese forces twice attempted to attack the headquarters of the Shanghai Expeditionary Force at Tangshuizhen, but the Japanese was able to repulse the attacks. Later in the day, Zhongshan Gate and Taiping Gate were captured by the Japanese as well, while Japanese Navy warships began to arrive to provide support. By nightfall, the Chinese capital city was declared as captured. German businessman John Rabe, who was in Nanjing, noted the diary entry on this date "It is not until we tour the city that we learn the extent of destruction. We come across corpses every 100 to 200 yards. The bodies of civilians that I examined had bullet holes in their backs. These people had presumably been fleeing and were shot from behind. The Japanese march through the city in groups of ten to twenty soldiers and loot the shops.... I watched with my own eyes as they looted the cafĂ© of our German baker Herr Kiessling. Hempel's hotel was broken into as well, as almost every shop on Chung Shang and Taiping Road." On this day, troops of the Japanese 16th Division massacred over 3,000 Chinese people, military and civilian, attempting to flee the combat near Guanjiangan and Jiangli areas of Nanjing. Troops of the Japanese 114th Division captured over 1,000 Chinese during its mop up operations, most of whom would be executed within days. Vessels operated by the 11th Task Force of the Japanese 3rd Fleet fired on Chinese refugees attempting to cross the Yangtze River. ww2dbase [Battle of Nanjing and the Rape of Nanjing | Nanjing | CPC]
Photo(s) dated 13 Dec 1937
Japanese soldiers crossing a river near the Nanjing city wall, China, Dec 1937Bodies of killed Chinese civilians on a street in Nanjing, China, Dec 1937; note Japnese military censor
14 Dec 1937

China
  • Japanese 9th Division began to conduct mop up operations in secured areas of Nanjing, China, occupying, among other buildings, the National Central Hospital. Nearby, at Xianhe Gate and Yaohua Gate of the city wall north of Zijin Mountain, 38th Company of the Japanese 16th Division killed 7,200 Chinese people, military and civilian, during mop up operations; those who were able to flee claimed that some sections of the moat were filled with dead bodies. Near Xuanwu Gate, troops of the Japanese 16th Division executed 500 Chinese civilians. Second Lieutenant Nakamura of the 6th Cavalry Company of the Japanese 6th Division executed 300 prisoners of war. As reported by the International Committee later, Japanese troops entered civilian homes in Nanjing and raped or took away women. ww2dbase [Battle of Nanjing and the Rape of Nanjing | Nanjing | CPC]
Photo(s) dated 14 Dec 1937
Japanese troops ordering Chinese civilians out of an air raid shelter, Nanjing, China, 14 Dec 1937
15 Dec 1937

China
  • Troops of the 23rd Company of the Japanese 6th Division executed over 1,000 captured Chinese military and civilians and over 400 police personnel (all captured in the city legislature building area where a temporary refugee camp was located) outside of Hanzhong Gate of Nanjing, China; their 2,000 bodies were burned. At Yijiangmen at about 1400 hours, Japanese troops rounded up 300 residents of the Jiang estate, killing them by machine gun fire and buring. On the Yangtze River, gunboats Futami and Seta of the Japanese Navy 3rd Fleet fired on Chinese refugees attempting to cross the river; nearby, Japanese naval personnel began executing many of the 9,000 captives they held. As reported by the International Committee later, "a number Japanese soldiers entered the University of Nanking buildings at Tao Yuen and raped 30 women on the spot, some by six men." ww2dbase [Battle of Nanjing and the Rape of Nanjing | Nanjing | CPC]
Photo(s) dated 15 Dec 1937
Japanese troops posing with a captured Chinese Panzer I Ausf A tank, Nanjing, mid-Dec 1937Partially sabotaged Chinese Panzer I Ausf A tanks at the port of Nanjing, China, mid-Dec 1937Chinese Panzer I Ausf. A light tanks captured by the Japanese, Nanjing, China, Dec 1937Chinese refugees, Nanjing, 15 Dec 1937
See all photos dated 15 Dec 1937
16 Dec 1937

China
  • Japanese 9th Division killed about 6,500 Chinese people, both military in civilian, in Nanjing, China during two days of mop up operations. 20th Company of the Japanese 16th Division massacred more than 7,000 Chinese east of Zijin Mountain. Chinese troops launched a failed counterattack at Qilin Gate of the city wall; 200 Chinese troops who were captured during the failed counterattack were executed by bayoneting by men of the 38th Company of the Japanese 16th Division. On the shore of the Yangtze River, the Japanese 13th Division began to execute large numbers of the 20,000 Chinese captives it held. As reported by the International Committee later, "seven girls (ages ranged from 16 to 21) were taken away from the Military College"; only five of them were able to return on 18 Dec; some of them reported being raped six or seven times daily by Japanese soldiers. ww2dbase [Battle of Nanjing and the Rape of Nanjing | Nanjing | CPC]
17 Dec 1937

China
  • At the Sancha Fangsheng Temple and the nearby orphanage in Nanjing, China, Japanese troops massacred 400 to 500 civilians. At a dock on the Yangtze River, Japanese troops massacred over 3,000 prisoners of war, civilian workers of the power plant, and other civilians. German businessman John Rabe, who was in the Chinese capital of Nanjing, noted the diary entry on this date "In one of the houses in the narrow street behind my garden wall, a woman was raped, and then wounded in the neck with a bayonet. I managed to get an ambulance so we can take her to Kulou Hospital.... You hear nothing but rape. If husbands or brothers intervene, they're shot. What you hear and see on all sides is the brutality and bestiality of the Japanese soldiers." ww2dbase [Battle of Nanjing and the Rape of Nanjing | Nanjing | CPC]
  • Iwane Matsui entered Nanjing, China with a military parade. ww2dbase [Iwane Matsui | Nanjing | CPC]
Photo(s) dated 17 Dec 1937
Japanese General Iwane Matsui marching into Nanjing, China, 17 Dec 1937, photo 1 of 2Japanese General Iwane Matsui marching into Nanjing, China, 17 Dec 1937, photo 2 of 3Japanese General Iwane Matsui marching into Nanjing, China, 17 Dec 1937, photo 1 of 3Japanese officers with Chinese civilians, Nanjing, China, 17 Dec 1937, photo 1 of 3
See all photos dated 17 Dec 1937
18 Dec 1937

China
  • Japanese troops executed over 300 Chinese people, military and civilian, on a road outside of Nanjing, China by machine gun. As reported by the International Committee later, at 1600 hours on this date, "at No. 18 I Ho Lu, Japanese soldiers wanted a man's cigarette case and when he hesitated, one of the soldier crashed in the side of his head with a bayonet. The man is now at the University Hospital and is not expected to live." ww2dbase [Battle of Nanjing and the Rape of Nanjing | Nanjing | CPC]
Photo(s) dated 18 Dec 1937
Japanese troops at the Wuxi Rail Station, Nanjing, China, Dec 1937
19 Dec 1937

China
  • Men of the Japanese 13th Division, having executed tends of thousands of refugees and prisoners of war in Nanjing, China by machine gun, bayonet, and fire since 16 Dec 1937, began to burn the remains; the ashes were dumped into the Yangtze River. Reverend James M. McCallum, who was in Nanjing, noted in his diary "Never I have heard or read such brutality. Rape! Rape! Rape! We estimate at least 1,000 cases a night, and many by day.... Women are being carried off every morning, afternoon and evening. The whole Japanese army seems to be free to go and come as it pleases, and to do whatever it pleases." ww2dbase [Battle of Nanjing and the Rape of Nanjing | Nanjing | CPC]
Photo(s) dated 19 Dec 1937
Dead Chinese piled on the shore of the Yangtze River near Xiaguan Pier, Nanjing, China, Dec 1937Japanese soldiers with a Chinese child, Nanjing, China, 19 Dec 1937
20 Dec 1937

China
  • The Japanese Domei News Agency reported that life in Nanjing, China, which was recently captured by Japanese troops, was returning to normal, and refugees who had fled the city prior and during the battle were starting to return. ww2dbase [Battle of Nanjing and the Rape of Nanjing | Nanjing | CPC]
28 Dec 1937

China
31 Dec 1937

China
1 Jan 1938

China
  • Japanese Army General Iwane Matsui reportedly told a Japanese diplomat "[m]y men have done something very wrong and extremely regrettable" regarding the atrocities committed in Nanjing, China. ww2dbase [Iwane Matsui | Nanjing | CPC]
Photo(s) dated 1 Jan 1938
Inauguration ceremony of the Chinese collaborationist Nanjing Autonomous Commission, China, 1 Jan 1938, photo 1 of 2Inauguration ceremony of the Chinese collaborationist Nanjing Autonomous Commission, China, 1 Jan 1938, photo 2 of 2
8 Jan 1938

China
  • A Japanese-controlled newspaper in China published that the residents of Nanjing, China welcomed Chinese troops with joy, and the Japanese Army offered food and other aid to those in need. ww2dbase [Battle of Nanjing and the Rape of Nanjing | Nanjing | CPC]
19 Jan 1938

China
  • George Fitch, an American missionary, departed Nanjing, China for Shanghai with 16-millimeter film containing scenes of Japanese atrocities secretly sewn into the lining of his jacket. ww2dbase [Battle of Nanjing and the Rape of Nanjing | Nanjing | CPC]
30 Jan 1938

China
  • As reported by the International Committee later, in the Chinese capital of Nanjing at about 1700 hours, Mr. Sone of the Nanjing Theological Seminary was overwhelmed by several hundred women seeking shelter. "One old woman 62 years old went home near Hansimen and Japanese soldiers came at night and wanted to rape her. She said she was too old. So the soldiers rammed a stick up her. But she survived to come back." ww2dbase [Battle of Nanjing and the Rape of Nanjing | Nanjing | CPC]
4 Feb 1938

China
5 Feb 1938

China
  • By this date, the International Committee had forwarded to the Japanese embassy a total of 450 cases of murder, rape, and other crimes committed by Japanese soldiers which were observed by American, British, and German nationals in Nanjing, China and reported by their respective embassies. ww2dbase [Battle of Nanjing and the Rape of Nanjing | Nanjing | CPC]
Photo(s) dated 5 Feb 1938
Chinese woman grieving the death of her entire family at the hands of the Japanese, Nanjing, China, 5 Feb 1938
10 Feb 1938

China
18 Feb 1938

China
7 Mar 1938

China
  • American surgeon Robert O. Wilson of the American-administered University Hospital in the Safety Zone in Nanjing, China wrote to his family, noting that "a conservative estimate of people slaughtered in cold blood is somewhere about 100,000, including of course thousands of soldiers that had thrown down their arms". ww2dbase [Battle of Nanjing and the Rape of Nanjing | Nanjing | CPC]
30 Mar 1940

China
  • Japan installed a puppet government in Nanjing, China under the leadership of Wang Jinwei. ww2dbase [Wang Jingwei | Nanjing | CPC]
Photo(s) dated 30 Mar 1940
Wang Jingwei and military officers at the ceremony establishing a Japanese government in Nanjing, China, 30 Mar 1940Wang Jingwei and Chinese and Japanese civilian officials at the ceremony establishing a Japanese government in Nanjing, China, 30 Mar 1940
30 Nov 1940

China
  • Wang Jingwei of the Japanese-sponsored puppet government in Nanjing, China established diplomatic relationship with fellow puppet state Manchukuo. ww2dbase [Wang Jingwei | Nanjing | CPC]
Photo(s) dated 30 Nov 1940
Wang Jingwei signing an agreement with the Japanese over the recognition of the puppet nation of Manchukuo, Nanjing, China, 30 Nov 1940Wang Jingwei speaking at a ceremony in which the Japanese puppet states of Manchukuo and Nanjing recognized each other, Nanjing, China, 30 Nov 1940
30 Mar 1941

Photo(s) dated 30 Mar 1941
Japanese puppet government in Nanjing celebration the first anniversary of its
21 Sep 1941

Photo(s) dated 21 Sep 1941
Chu Minyi observing a complete solar eclipse, Nanjing, China, 21 Sep 1941
28 Oct 1941

China
  • Zang Shiyi signed a document in Nanjing, China that formally recognized Manchukuo's recognition of fellow Japanese-sponsored puppet state in the formal Chinese capital. ww2dbase [Zang Shiyi | Nanjing | CPC]
23 May 1943

China
  • Pang Bingxun was installed as the commander of the 24th Army Group of the Japanese puppet government in Nanjing, China. ww2dbase [Pang Bingxun | Nanjing | CPC]
7 Mar 1945

China
  • Wang Guangfu, flying a P-51K fighter, shot down a Ki-44 aircraft over Nanjing, China. ww2dbase [Wang Guangfu | Nanjing | CPC]
30 May 1945

China
  • Gao Youxin, flying a P-51 Mustang fighter, led 15 others for a fighter sweep over Nanjing, China. He was credited with one victory, a Ki-43-II aircraft. ww2dbase [Gao Youxin | Nanjing | CPC]
17 Aug 1945

China
  • President Chen Gongbo (Wade-Giles: Chen Kung-po) of the puppet Reorganized National Government of China in Nanjing fled China for Japan. ww2dbase [Nanjing | CPC]
8 Sep 1945

China
  • Escorted by eight fighters, He Yingqin arrived in Nanjing, China by air at 0900 hours; later in the day he would meet with General Yasuji Okamura to work out the surrender ceremony details. ww2dbase [Japan's Surrender | He Yingqin | Nanjing | CPC]
9 Sep 1945

China
  • At 0900 hours, the main Japanese surrender ceremony in China took place at the auditorium of the Central Military Academy in Nanjing, China. General Yasuji Okamura, Commander-in-Chief of Japanese Army's China Expeditionary Army, represented Japan, while General He Yingqin represented China. In pursuit of Chiang Kaishek's wishes to treat the Japanese with benevolence, the Chinese had wanted the ceremony to be taken place at a round table so that the Japanese representatives would be viewed as peers, but the American liaisons sent to Nanjing succeeded in preventing such a friendly gesture. General He was said to have apologized to Okamura, an old acquaintance at the Japanese Army Academy in the 1910s, for subjecting him to such an embarrassing arrangement forced by the Americans. As a part of the surrender agreement, Japanese troops in China were to remain in power to maintain order, to care for prisoners of war, and to guard important locations against Chinese Communists. ww2dbase [Japan's Surrender | He Yingqin | Nanjing | CPC]
Photo(s) dated 9 Sep 1945
Yasuji Okamura and other Japanese officers at the surrender ceremony in Nanjing, China, 9 Sep 1945Chinese General He Yingqin signing the Japanese surrender document at the Chinese Military Academy in Nanjing, China, 9 Sep 1945, photo 1 of 2Yasuji Okamura surrendering to He Yingqin, Nanjing, China, 9 Sep 1945, photo 1 of 3General First Class He Yingqin, General Second Class Gu Zhutong, and Lieutenant General Xiao Yisu inspecting the Japanese instrument of surrender, Nanjing, China, 9 Sep 1945
See all photos dated 9 Sep 1945
17 Mar 1946

China
  • Dai Li passed away in an aircraft accident in Nanjing, China. ww2dbase [Dai Li | Nanjing | CPC]
5 May 1946

Photo(s) dated 5 May 1946
Chiang Kaishek on the occasion of the Republic of China government officially returning to the capital of Nanjing, China, 5 May 1946
12 Aug 1946

China
  • He Yingqin was made a member of the committee overseeing the care of Sun Yatsen's tomb in Nanjing, China. ww2dbase [He Yingqin | Nanjing | CPC]
6 Feb 1947

China
  • A court in Najing, China, Lieutenant General Hisao Tani, commanding officer of the Japanese 6th Division in Nanjing from late 1937, was found guilty of encouraging his men to commit crimes such as rape, murder, plunder, and destruction. ww2dbase [Tokyo Trial and Other Trials Against Japan | Hisao Tani | Nanjing | CPC]
10 Mar 1947

China
  • Lieutenant General Hisao Tani was sentenced to death by a court in Nanjing, China for encouraging his men to commit crimes such as rape, murder, plunder, and destruction at Nanjing in 1937 and 1938. ww2dbase [Tokyo Trial and Other Trials Against Japan | Nanjing | CPC]
  • Hisao Tani was found guilty of war crimes by a court in Nanjing, China. ww2dbase [Hisao Tani | Nanjing | CPC]
26 Apr 1947

China
  • Lieutenant General Hisao Tani was executed by firing squad at Nanjing, China. ww2dbase [Nanjing | CPC]
  • Hisao Tani was executed by firing squad on Mount Yuhuatai in Nanjing, China. ww2dbase [Hisao Tani | Nanjing | CPC]
Photo(s) dated 26 Apr 1947
Hisao Tani being executed for war crimes, Mount Yuhuatai, Nanjing, China, 26 Apr 1947Hisao Tani awaiting execution, Mount Yuhuatai, Nanjing, China, 26 Apr 1947Hisao Tani being escorted to his place of execution, Nanjing, China, 26 Apr 1947
13 Feb 1948

China
  • Gao Youxin was killed after accidentally falling onto train tracks in Nanjing, China. ww2dbase [Gao Youxin | Nanjing | CPC]
24 Sep 1948

China
  • Wei Lihuang met with Chiang Kaishek in Nanjing, China. ww2dbase [Wei Lihuang | Nanjing | CPC]
9 Nov 1948

China
23 Apr 1949

China
  • Chinese communist forces captured Nanjing, China and announced the end of the Nationalist Party government. ww2dbase [Nanjing | CPC]

Timeline Section Founder: Thomas Houlihan
Contributors: Alan Chanter, C. Peter Chen, Thomas Houlihan, Hugh Martyr, David Stubblebine
Special Thanks: Rory Curtis




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Famous WW2 Quote
"Since peace is now beyond hope, we can but fight to the end."

Chiang Kaishek, 31 Jul 1937