Japan

Alliance Axis - Major Member Nation
Entry into WW2 7 Jul 1937
Population in 1939 71,380,000
Military Deaths in WW2 2,000,000
Civilian Deaths in WW2 600,000

Contributor: C. Peter Chen

During WW1, the Japanese military seized German colonies in China and in the Pacific; the Versailles Treaty officially gave Japan the mandate over all German Pacific colonies north of the equator, expanding her borders in the East Asia region and making her a recognized regional power. During the 1920s and 1930s, military leaders slowly grasped political power in Japan, responding to the calls that Japan should unite under one banner (democracy was perceived as divisive) and that Japan should not be treated as a second-rate power by the western nations.

Since the Second Sino-Japanese War was one of the many regional wars that made up World War 2, strictly militarily speaking, Japan was the nation that began the war in the east. In 1928, Japanese assassins took the life of the Chinese warlord in Manchuria; when the successor emerged to be an anti-Japanese and pro-Nationalist Chinese figure, the Japanese found excuses for the occupation of Manchuria. Japan appeased the League of Nations with promises of withdraw, but in actuality the plans to establish a puppet state were already in the works. Manchukuo was established on 18 Feb 1932 under the leadership of deposed Chinese Emperor Puyi. To distract the League of Nations from the events in Manchuria, Japan instigated the First Battle of Shanghai in Jan 1932. Angered by continued international condemnation, Japan left the League of Nations in 1933. Between that time and the formal start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 Jul 1937, several small scale engagements took place between Japan and China.

To say that Japan as a whole aggressively sought war was unfair, for that many figures in the military opposed wide-scale war, especially against the United States and Britain, but that was nevertheless the direction Japan moved toward. On 27 Sep 1940, Japan, Germany, and Italy signed the Axis Pact. In Jul 1941, after a series of events that worsened relations between the United States and Japan, the US announced the embargo of key raw materials, including oil, against Japan; other western powers followed suits. This was the point of no return for Japan for that it gave fuel to the hawks in Japan's top leadership.

In Dec 1941, after China, Europe, and North Africa were already engulfed in war for at least two years, Japan made WW2 a truly world war by starting the Pacific War. In a series of wildly successful attacks, Japan wiped out any force that could pose immediate threat to her in the Pacific in a handful of months. By mid-1942, Japanese military reached as far southwest as Burma and Malaya and as far south as New Guinea, an empire of staggering size.

Japan's luck began to turn in 1942, however. The war in China seemed to be progressing slowly, but it was becoming evident that China was so large a territory to conquer that it was sucking in more resources than Japan wished to devote to. With a series of strategic losses in the Pacific such as Battle of Coral Sea (failure to secure Port Moresby), Battle of Midway (loss of four fleet carriers, along with aircraft and crew, that Japan could not replace), and the Guadalcanal Campaign (a series of battles that unwisely frittered away Japan's strength), Japan suddenly found herself losing the initiative. Last but not least, Japan became a victim of her own success. With territory so vast, her own shipping capacity was no longer capable to adequately supply all the faraway garrisons and expeditionary forces. Finally, over time, with an inability to replace machines of war and trained men to operate them, the war pushed closer and closer to her. The loss of Saipan was the first devastating piece of news, then came the loss of Iwo Jima and Okinawa, two islands considered members of the home islands.

From this point on, it was only the matter of time before Japan acknowledged defeat. While Japanese leaders negotiated for truce unsuccessfully, the incessant bombings turned some Japanese cities into towering infernos. Then, the new atomic weapon the United States unleashed on Hiroshima shocked the world. Japan was now on the verge of admitting surrender unconditionally, but perhaps due to shock, no official reaction was sent to the Allied powers. Finally, on 8 Aug 1945, Russia (whom Japan viewed as relatively friendly) declared war on Japan, invading Manchukuo, and a second atomic bomb destroyed Nagasaki. It was not until then that, Emperor Hirohito interfered with the government and brought Japan to surrender. On 14 Aug 1945, in a surprising move, Emperor Hirohito announced the surrender personally over public radio.

At the end of the war, Japan was stripped of all of her overseas possessions, and the home islands were occupied by Allied personnel headed by Douglas MacArthur. Japan did not regain her sovereignty until Apr 1952.

Source: Wikipedia.

People

Abe, HiroakiKaneko, TadashiRoh, Yong-U
Abe, NobuyukiKanno, NaoshiSakai, Saburo
Adachi, HatazoKasai, TomokazuSasai, Junichi
Amagai, TakahisaKashimura, KanichiSasaki, Noboru
Ando, RikichiKatsumata, SeizoSejima, Ryuzo
Aoki, TaijiroKitano, MasajiSeki, Yukio
Ariga, KosakuKobayashi, MichioShigemitsu, Mamoru
Ariizumi, TatsunosukeKobe, YujiShima, Kiyohide
Arima, MasafumiKodaira, YoshinaoShinozaki, Mamoru
Chikao, YasunoKoga, MineichiShioden, Nobutaka
Chung, Il-kwonKoiso, KuniakiShiozawa, Koichi
Daigo, TadashigeKondo, NobutakeShiraichi, Kayutaka
Doihara, KenjiKonoe, FumimaroShirakawa, Yoshinori
Fuchida, MitsuoKotohitoShiratori, Toshio
Fujita, NobuoKoyanagi, TomijiShowa (Hirohito)
Fukudome, ShigeruKudo, ChuSoji, Akira
Furusho, MikioKuribayashi, TadamichiSugihara, Chiune
Genda, MinoruKurita, TakeoSugiyama, Hajime
Goto, AritomoKurusu, SaburoSuzuki, Kantaro
Hamazono, ShigeyoshiKusaka, JinichiTak, Kyonghyong
Hara, ChuichiKusaka, RyunosukeTakagi, Takeo
Hara, TameichiKuwahara, TadaoTakahito
Harada, KanameMaruyama, MasaoTamai, Asaichi
Hasegawa, KiichiMatsuda, ChiakiTanabe, Yahachi
Hashimoto, MochitsuraMatsui, IwaneTanaka, Raizo
Hata, ShunrokuMatsuoka, YosukeTanaka, Shizuichi
HironobuMatsura, GoroTatekawa, Yoshitsugu
Hirota, KokiMikawa, GunichiTerauchi, Hisaichi
HiroyasuMinami, JiroTojo, Hideki
Homma, MasaharuMinami, YoshimiTokuno, Hiroshi
Honda, MasakiMiwa, ShigeyoshiTomonaga, Joichi
Honjo, ShigeruMorihiroToyoda, Soemu
Horii, TomitaroMuto, AkiraTsuji, Masanobu
Horikoshi, JiroNagahisaTsuneyoshi
Horiuchi, ShigetadaNagano, OsamiUgaki, Matome
Hyakutake, HarukichiNagumo, ChuichiUmezu, Yoshijiro
Ichiki, KiyonoNambu, NobukiyoUshijima, Mitsuru
Ihara, MitsugoNaruhikoUshiroku, Jun
Iida, FusataNishi, TakeichiYamaguchi, Moriyoshi
Imamura, HitoshiNishimura, ShojiYamaguchi, Tamon
Inoguchi, RikiheiNishina, YoshioYamamoto, Isoroku
Inoguchi, SatoshiNobuhitoYamaoka, Mineo
Inoguchi, ToshihiraNomura, KichisaburoYamashita, Tomoyuki
Inoue, IsamuObata, HideyoshiYamazaki, Yasuyo
Inoue, ShigeyoshiOgawa, KiyoshiYanagimoto, Ryusaku
Isawa, YutakaOhara, HisashiYasuhiko
Ishii, ShiroOkada, JisakuYasuhito
Itagaki, SeishiroOkamura, YasujiYi, Geon
Ito, KiyoshiOkumiya, MasatakeYi, Un
Ito, SukemitsuOmori, SentaroYi, Woo
Ito, TaisukeOnishi, TakijiroYonai, Mitsumasa
Iwamoto, TetsuzoOshima, HiroshiYoshida, Mitsuru
Iwasa, NaojiOta, MinoruYoshida, Shigeru
Kagawa, KiyotoOzawa, JisaburoYoshikawa, Takeo
Kaku, TomeoPaik, Sun-yupYoshioka, Yasunori

Events Taken Place in Japan

Doolittle Raid18 Apr 1942
Greater East Asia Conference5 Nov 1943 - 6 Nov 1943
Battle of Iwo Jima19 Feb 1945 - 26 Mar 1945
Bombing of Tokyo and Other Cities19 Feb 1945 - 10 Aug 1945
Okinawa Campaign1 Apr 1945 - 21 Jun 1945
Preparations for Invasion of Japan14 Jul 1945 - 9 Aug 1945
Atomic Bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki6 Aug 1945 - 9 Aug 1945
Japan's Surrender14 Aug 1945 - 2 Sep 1945
Tokyo Trial and Other Trials Against Japan3 May 1946 - 12 Nov 1948

Aircraft

2MB1D4Y SuiseiJ7W ShindenKi-34Ki-61 Hien
2MR8E13AJ8M Shusui / Ki-200Ki-36Ki-67 Hiryu
A2NE14YK7MKi-4Ki-83
A5ME15K ShiunKDA-2Ki-43 HayabusaKi-84 Hayate
A6M ZeroE16A ZuiunKi-1Ki-44 ShokiKi-9
A7M ReppuE7KKi-10Ki-45 ToryuKi-98
B1ME8NKi-115 TsurugiKi-46Ku-8
B2ME9WKi-15Ki-48 SokeiM6A Seiran
B4YF1MKi-2Ki-49 DonryuMT-1 Hayabusa
B5MG3MKi-20Ki-51MXY7 Ohka
B5NG4MKi-21Ki-54N1K Kyofu / Shiden
B6N TenzanH6KKi-27Ki-55P1Y Ginga
B7A RyuseiH8KKi-30Ki-56Type 91
C6N SaiunJ1NKi-32Ki-57
D3AJ2M RaidenKi-33Ki-59

Ships

AbukumaHieiKatoriNagato-classTakao
AganoHikawa MaruKatori-classNagatsukiTakao-class
Agano-classHiryuKatsuragiNakaTakasago Maru
AkagiHiyoKembu MaruNatoriTama
AkashiHiyo-classKikuzukiNisshinTanikaze
AmagiHoshoKinai MaruNoshiroTatsuta Maru
AmagiriHyugaKinuOiTatsuta
AobaI-369KinugasaOnamiTenryu
ArashioI-400KirishimaOshioTenryu-class
Arisan MaruI-400-classKisoOyodoTone
AsagumoI-401KitakamiRenraku-tei-classTone-class
Asama MaruI-402KongoRo-58Toyama Maru
AshigaraI-52Kongo-classRyuhoTsushima Maru
AtagoI-53KumaRyujoType A-class
Awa MaruI-58Kuma-classSakawaType B-class
ChikumaI-68 / I-168KumanoSeisho MaruType C-class
ChitoseIbukiMatsuSendaiType D-class
Chitose-classIkazuchiMatsu-classSendai-classUnryu
ChiyodaIrakoMayaSettsuUnryu-class
ChokaiIseMichishioShigureUnyo
ChuyoIse-classMikumaShimakazeYahagi
Daihatsu-classIsuzuMinegumoShinanoYamagumo
Fubuki-classItsukushimaMogamiShinyo MaruYamashiro
FurutakaIwateMogami-classShinyoYamato
Furutaka-classIzumoMontevideo MaruShinyo-classYamato-class
FusoIzumo-classMurasameShohoYubari
Fuso-classJintsuMusashiShokakuYugure
Ha-101JunyoMutsuShokaku-classYukikaze
Ha-102KagaMutsukiSoryuYura
Ha-104Kairyu-classMutsuki-classSoryu-classYuzuki
Ha-19Kaiten-classMyokoSoyaZuiho
HaguroKaiyoMyoko-classSuzukazeZuiho-class
Hakusan MaruKakoNachiSuzuyaZuikaku
HamakazeKashiNagaraTaiho
HarunaKashiiNagara-classTaiyo
HatsuzakuraKashimaNagatoTaiyo-class

Vehicles

Type 1 Chi-He/Type 3 Ka-ChiType 2 Ke-ToType 4 Ho-RoType 89 I-GoType 97 Chi-Ha
Type 1 Ho-HaType 3 Chi-NuType 4 Ke-NuType 92 Jyu-SokoshaType 97 Te-Ke
Type 1 Ho-KiType 3 Ho-Ni IIIType 5 Chi-RiType 94 Te-KeType 98 Ke-Ni
Type 1 Ho-Ni IType 4 Chi-ToType 5 Ke-HoType 95 Ha-Go/Type 2 Ka-MiType 98 So-Da
Type 2 Ho-IType 4 Ha-ToType 5 Na-ToType 95 Kurogane

Weapons

40 mm Mod 91 Anti-Aircraft GunType 14 HandgunType 92 Battalion Gun Field Gun
410 mm How Field GunType 26 HandgunType 92 Machine Gun
80 mm Mod 99 Anti-Aircraft GunType 3 12 cm Anti-Aircraft GunType 94 37 mm Anti-Tank Gun
Arisaka Type 38 RifleType 3 120 mm Coastal Defense GunType 94 75 mm Field Gun
Arisaka Type 44 RifleType 3 8 cm Anti-Aircraft GunType 94 Handgun
Arisaka Type 99 RifleType 38 75 mm Field GunType 94 Launcher
Type 04 HandgunType 4 75 mm Anti-Aircraft GunType 95 75 mm Field Gun
Type 1 37 mm Anti-Tank GunType 41 75 mm Regimental Gun Field GunType 96 15 cm Howitzer Field Gun
Type 1 47 mm Anti-Tank GunType 45 24 cm Howitzer Field GunType 96 Machine Gun
Type 10 120 mm Anti-Aircraft GunType 5 15 cm AA Anti-Aircraft GunType 97 Anti-Tank Rifle
Type 100 Submachine GunType 88 75 mm Anti-Aircraft GunType 97 Grenade
Type 11 37 mm Field GunType 89 15 cm Cannon Field GunType 97 Machine Gun
Type 11 75 mm Anti-Aircraft GunType 89 LauncherType 98 Launcher
Type 11 Machine GunType 91 105 mm Howitzer Field GunType 99 Machine Gun
Type 14 10 cm AA Anti-Aircraft GunType 91 Grenade
Type 14 10 cm Cannon Field GunType 92 10 cm Cannon Field Gun

Territories, Possessions, and Nations Under the Influence of Japan

Caroline IslandsMariana IslandsTaiwan
KoreaMarshall Islands

Facilities

Atsugi AirfieldAirfield
Ishigaki AirfieldAirfield
Kure Naval ArsenalShipyard
Maizuru Naval ArsenalShipyard
Sasebo Naval ArsenalShipyard
Yokosuka Naval ArsenalShipyard





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Visitor Submitted Comments

  1. Gregg Heilman says:
    7 Dec 2009 05:33:55 PM

    For a good reason why the POWs of the Japanese died at a rate many times that of the POWs held by the Germans check this out.

    But the Japanese did not just pick on American POWs, the killed anyone and everyone in every possible way.

    Read the book "Rape of Nanjing" or Unit 731 and see what Japanese Honorable sons did to their victims. Two Japanese Lt's. had a contest to see who could behead the most Chinese POWs. It ended only when the one Lt. sword was damaged cutting a Chinese POW in half from the head down.

    This site will tell you the rest of the story.
    http://members.iinet.net.au/~gduncan/massacres_pacific.html#Pacific
  2. Anonymous says:
    2 Feb 2011 10:20:42 AM

    i cant find anything i need

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